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AN ESSENTIAL GUIDE ON THE UTILIZATION OF THE GODAVARI WATERS AND RESOURCES


 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.


"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


  

The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar


SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002

 


RECONSTRUCTING A HISTORY OF LAND,

DISPOSSESSION OF ADIVASI LAND IN THE WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT OF A.P.

Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,

Hyderabad

Read full article


 

40% of the Godavari basin is populated by tribals.  The Rampa rebellion (1880) – the Bhumakal in Bastar (1910) – the fituries in Rampa and Gudem(1798 - 1924),  the martyrdom of Komaram Bheem (1942) – the Telangana armed struggle (1948) – the killing of tribals in police firing in Indravelli (1982) – the tribal land right movement in West Godavari and Khammam districts (1995…) are some land marks in the struggles of tribals in the Godavari valley.

 

 After suppressing the Rampa rebellion, the British government brought the tribal areas of Godavari district also into scheduled areas.  A Sub-Collector was appointed in Bhadrachalam covering the Bhadrachalam and Polavaram taluks.  He has been designated as assistant agent whereas the district Collector is agent to the government.  Laws protecting tribal lands were came into force in 1917, agency rules were framed in 1924 to deal with the civil and criminal disputes.  With these enactments and arrangements, the governance in scheduled areas gained special character.  When tribal in Bastar rose in revolt against forest laws, the officer on special duty in 1910, proposed to introduce the knowledge of these laws and rules in the schools to enable the tribals to complain about the violation.

 Download Original Document

 



P:68

Table showing the names of the Rebels and the Amount offered as Reward for their Capture.

Name

Rewards

Korukonda Subba Reddy

500 (later raised to 2500/-)

Korla Venkata Subba Reddy

500 (later raised to 1000/-)

Korukonda Munga Reddy

300

Korla Seetharamaiah

300

Chintapalli Dasi Reddy

200

Korla Singi Reddy

200

Korla Raja Reddy

100

Dundangy Veera Reddy

100

Pallala Ramaiah

100

Gobbalampati Rami Reddy

100

P:122

The Rewards offered were as follows:

Person

Amount Reward Rs.

Bandapalli Pandu Dora

500

Korla Raja Reddy ( The muttadar of Vemulakonda)

300

Veducur (or Yedukuru) Mullu Reddi

300

Panda Chellegadu, a resident of Rampa

200

Karem Pandu Dora (Might be the muttadar of Birampalli)

300

Nellur ( Nedulur?) Gunga Reddy

200

Panda Butchegadu

200

Total

2200

P:255

            In all 23 rebels started their march to attack the Gudem police station, some sixteen miles distant from Sadiki.

Table showing the list of Rebels:

SNO

Name

Village

1

Jammi Kakari

Persarada

2

Sarai Gosadu

Mulagalametta

3

Salabi Bodadu

Mulagalametta

4

Surla Balayya

Boddamuddu

5

Bhurti Patadu

Lubbengipakalu

6

Korab padal

Gollapalli

7

Potukuri Maladu

Sadiki

8

Murla Balayya

Sadiki

9

Murla Somayya

Sadiki

10

Vulli Thontadu

Sadiki

11

Rengasingi Letchmudu

Sadiki

12

Matai Battad alias Gulladu

Sadiki

13

Salabi Chitukadu

Mulagalametta

14

Doddipalli Gunganna

Kistnapuram

15

Venjari Punasadu

Kistnapuram

16

Chitakala Balayya

Gollapalli

17

Chitakala Nadipivadu

Gollapalli

18

Bonnangi Borrayya

Gollapalli

19

Vulli Latchmudu

Lubbengipakalu

20

Turai Kurranna

Podumpad

21

Kopurru Latchumudu

Vojeragondi

22

Vangulla Ramana

Chintalawada

23

Rajana Anantayya

Kasimkota

P: 354

Table showing the names of Rebels, the Villages to which to which they belonged and Terms of Imprisonment

SNO

Name

Village

Punishment

1

Pami Pottadu

Lagarai

Died Before trial

2

Pusam Kannaya

Lagarai

3 years R.I

3

Pami Nukayya

Lagarai

3 years R.I

4

Beeraboyina Bheemaiah

Lagarai

3 years R.I

5

Revalapudi Akkaya

Lagarai

3 years R.I

6

Thatta Achigadu

Lagarai

4 years R.I

7

Indugupalli Achigadu

Lagarai

3 year R.I

8

Pottaboyina Butchaiah

Lagarai

2 years R.I

9

Boraga Jogayya

Lagarai

2 years R.I

10

Boraga Rajayya

Lagarai

1 year R.I

11

Boraga Kannayya

Lagarai

1 year R.I

12

Miriyala Rajayya

Kondapalli

Acquitted

13

Kunjam Kunnayya

Kondapalli

2 years R.I

14

Kunjam Pandayya

Kondapalli

Acquitted

15

Madakam Rajayya

Tantikonda

1 year R.I

16

Sitarapu Tokkadu

Kondapalli

2 Years R.I

17

Choppagadda Borayya

Kondapalli

 4 years R.I

18

Kanam Vepadu

Lagarai

4 Years R.I

19

Chodi yerra Balayya

Lagarai

4 years R.I

20

Sitarapu Hanumadu

Kondapalli

1 year R.I

21

Choppagadda Nukayya

Kondapalli

Acquitted

22

Kunjam Balayya

Kondapalli

3 years R.I

23

Kunjam Achayya

Revadipalem

4 years R.I

24

Kunjam Chinnayya

Labharthi

4 years R.I

25

Pottaboyina Chinnayya

Labharthi

4 years R.I

P:356

The Government announced rewards worth of Rs. 200 each for the remaining 14 members.

Table showing the Names of the Proclaimed 14 Offenders

SNo

Name

Village

1

Garamalla Mangadu

Lagarai

2

Manga Pentadu

Lagarai

3

Chodi Peda Baldora

Lagarai

4

Chodi Naganna

Lagarai

5

Chodi Chinna Balayya

Kondapalli

6

Kunjam Balayya

Kondapalli

7

Eka Pentaiah

Kondaiah

8

Eka Potaiah

Lagarai

9

Borga Tammayya

Kondapalli

10

KunjamYerrayya

Kondapalli

11

Katam Rajayya

Lagarai

12

Mailaboyanna Latchamyya

Kondapalli

13

Jarta Tammayya

Kondapalli

14

Kinjam Reddayya

Kondapalli

 

P:371

Table showing the persons Convicted

SNO

Name

Position Held

Imprisonment

1

V.Appala Swamy

Musif of Rajanommangi, Godavari Dist

3 months Regorous Impriosonment (R.I)

2

P.Kondayya

Izardar Voyyada, Godavari Dist.

3 months simple imprisonment (S.I)

3

D. Bangari Padal

Munsif of Rollagadda, Godavari Dist.

3 months of S.I

4

D.Kannayya

Izardar of Kimmel Gudd, Godavari Dist

1 month R.I

5

S.Gangayya

Izardar of Kimmel Gudda, Godavari Dist

1 month S.I

6

R.Lathmayya

Izardar of Amierekalu, Godavari Dist.

1 month 15 days S.I

7

L.Sanyasi

Izardar of Amierekalu, Godavari Dist.

1 month 15 days S.I.

8

Rampa Randa

Villager of Baradampalle, Godavari Dist.

3 months S.I

9

Maladi Yerrayya

Villager of Baradampalle, Godavari Dist.

2 months S.I

10

Kuruvalle Pentayya

Villager of Baradampalle, Godavari Dist

2 months S.I

11

Topari Yerakayya

Villager of Baradampalle, Godavari Dist.

2 months S.I

12

Manabali Rama Swami

Villager of Baradampalle, Godavari Dist.

2 months S.I

13

Naladi Kamayya

Villager of Baradam Palle, Godavari Dist.

2 months S.I

14

Kamapurthi Pothayya

Villager of Relampadu, Godavari Dist.

2 months S.I

15

Chinna Pothana

Villager of Relampadu, Godavari Dist.

2 months S.I

16

D.Raman Dora

Munsif of Solapur, Vizagapatnam dist

1 month S.I

17

S.Veeranna Padalu

Munsif of Savuddipalli, Vizagapatnam Dist.

1 month S.I

18

G.Linganna Dora

Munsif of Dokkalur, Vizagapatnam Dist.

2 months of S.I

19

P.Boram Nayudu

Villager of Dokkalur, Vizagapatnam Dist.,

2 months of S.I

20

 

The munsif of Jaggampeta, Vizagapatnam Dist.

1 month of S.I

21

 

The munsif of Doddaram, Vizagapatnam Dist.

3 months S.I

22

 

The munsif of Kotapalle, Vizagapatnam Dist.

3 months S.I

23

Gunjagedda Gaddidu

Villager of Ardhavidhi, Vizagapatnam Dist.

40 days S.I

P: 378

Table showing Social Background of the Participants

SNo

Name

Caste

Vilalge

1

Pami pentadu

Kammara

Lagarai

2

Pami Nukayya

Kammara

Lagarai

3

Pusam Kannayya

Koya

Lagarai

4

Beeraboyina Bhemayya

Koya

Lagarai

5

Revalapudi Akkayya

Chakali

Lagarai

6

Thatta Achigadu

Mala

Lagarai

7

Idugupalli Achigadu

Madiga

Lagarai

8

Pottaboyina Buchayya

Koya

Lagarai

9

Boraga Jogayya

Koya

Lagarai

10

Boraga Rajayya

Koya

Lagarai

11

Boraga Kannayya

Koya

Lagarai

12

Miriyala Rajayya

Koya

Kondapalli

13

Kunjam Pandaya

Koya

Kondapalli

14

Kinjam Kannayya

Koya

Kondapalli

15

Madakam Rajayya

Koya

Tantikonda

16

Sitarapu Takkadu

Mala

Kondapalli

17

Choppagadda Borayya

Mala

Kondapalli

18

Kanem Vepadu

Kodulu

 Lagarai

19

Chodi Yerra Balayya

Koya

Lagarai

20

Sitarapu Hanumadu

Mala

Kondapalli

21

Choppagadda Nukayya

Mala

Kondapalli

22

Kunjam Balayya

Koya

Kondapalli

23

Kunjam Chinnayya

Koya

Kondapalli

24

Kunjam Achayya

Koya

Revadipalem

25

Pottaboyina Chinnayya

Koya

Lagarai

26

Kotam Rajayya

Koya

Lagarai

27

Borage Tammayya

Koya

Kondapalli

28

Eka Potayya

Koya

Kondapalli

29

Eka Pentaiah

Koya

Kondapalli

30

Chodi Pedda bal Dora

Koya

Kondapalli

31

Chodi Naganna

Koya

Lagarai

32

Manga Pentadu

Koya

Kondapalli

33

Garamalla Mangadu

Koya

Lagarai

34

Kunjam Pendayya

 Koya

Lagarai

35

Manga Pentadu

Kammara

Lagarai

36

Garamalla Mangadu

Koya

Lagarai

37

Kunjam Pandayya

Koya

Kondapalli

38

Kunjam Yerra Balayya

Koya

Kondapalli

39

Chodi China Balayya

 Koya

Kondapalli

40

Vellala (Pallala) Pentayya

Konda Reddy

Burugawada

41

Vellala (Pallala) Ramireddy

Konda Reddy

Burugawada

42

Pallala Bali Reddy

Konda Reddy

Devalur

43

Sadala Pendayya

Konda Reddy

Ramala Gondi

44

Veluguru Balayya

Konda reddy

Garamanda

45

Arimella Muvvadu

Konda Reddy

Koppukonda

46

Tuburi Kottapalli

Konda Reddy

Rellampadu

47

Jalumuru Achayya

Konda Reddy

Loddadi

Savara in Revolt 1864-69

Jaltheru Police Station           

Government Strategy to Attack Savaras

 

            P:133

          For Zanti Gomango of Pottasinghi, his brother, the ring leaders 500 each                 Rs. 1000

          For the Gomango of sogada, the 2 Gomangoes of Baraigi, the

          Gomango of Gundruma and one Dumma Gomango all took an

          Active part in the murders   200 each                                                                        Rs. 1000

          14 others engaged in murders and firing on station         100 each                          Rs. 1400

                                                                                                                          -----------

                                                                                                                           Rs. 3400

                                                                                                                          -----------

P: 139 Second attempt to establish Police Station at Pottasinghi

         

P: 261           The number of insurgents, Villages and Muttas to which they belonged were as follows

 

                   8 Sadiki                                               -        Gudem Kothaveedhi Mutta

                   2 Chintalawada                                      -        Gudem Kothaveedhi Muttta

                   3 Mulagala Mittah                                   -        Makaram Mutta

                   4 Gollapalli                                            -        Gudem pathavidhi mutta

                   1 Salai                                                 -        Gudem pathaveedhi mutta

                   1 Kistnapuram                                      -        Gimilli Mutta

                   1 Poburnpad                                         -        Gimilli Mutta

                   1 Pesarada                                           -        Plain village in Golgonda taluk (Kakari)

                   1 Kasimkota                                         -        a plain village, but was living in Puthavidhi mutta as a tutor (Anantayya)

 

P: 273 Table showing the movements of the Rebels

 

23rd May 1891

Krishna Devipeta Police Station attacked

24th May 1891

Sidipalem

25th May 1891

Lagarai

 

Buradapalli

27th May 1891

Alamanda

28th May 1891 to 1st June 1891

Saruguda and Bakalur Villages

2nd June 1891

Jogampeta and Chintapadu

3rd June 1891

Robbasinghi and Devunur

4th June 1891

Arlalova

5th June 1891

Kalyanapakalova

6th June 1891

On the March

7th June 1891

Kumundam peta and looting in Kintali

8th June 1891

Sanivaram and Gangaraju Madugula

9th June 1891

Salibham

10th June 1891

Lotegedda

11th June 1891

Jerrela

12th June 1891

Ammavari Dharakonda

13th June 1891

Peda Sharakonda

14th Jun 1891

Gudem

17th June 1891

Lakkavaram

18th June 1891

Errigarlu

19th June 1891

Balreo and Koyyuru

20th June 1891

Bandapalli, kamitiguda and Amirakulu

21st to 24th June 1891

Bakuluru and Pobbangalu

 

 

 

 

Alluri Seetarama Raju

The word Gudem in Andhra Pradesh is general means a village but it is also the proper name of an area in the hills of Vishakapatnam. The rebellious of 1922-24 in this area is also referred to as the Manyam or Rampa rebellion. The hill area of Vishakapatnam is called Manyam by the local people. Rampa is a part of Godavari agency while the area involved in this rebellion is in the Vishakapatnam Agency. It was transferred to Godavari district for administrative purposes just before the rebellion actually broke out and bence the records speak of it as Rampa Rebellion. A similar rebellion had taken place in the Rampa area in 1879 and a reference to the 1922 event also as Rampa Rebellion causes confusion. The villages involved in the former area are totally different from those of the latter. This is called Gudem rebellion though no book or record has done so till now. The name Golugonda rebellion is also avoided because there had been two such events in the Golugonda area previously.

Source: Author: Dr.J.Mangamma, Published by R.Parthsarathy,IAS, AP State Archives,1983

Page:v;         The Government pressed into service a sizeable number of Malabar Special Reserve Police, Bellary Special Police, Coromandal and East Coast Reserves, the General Police Force of Godavari and Vishakapatnam districts and towards the end even the Assam Rifles. The operations were purely military in character and the government forces were armed with magazine rifles, Lewis guns, rifle grenades and wireless sets; camels, elephants and Ford vans were used for transportation of rations and equipment.

Page:34        According to the Administrative report, the troops actually employed were as follows- Two companies of Sappers, the 10th Native Infantry, parts of 5th, 17th, 29th and 38th Native Infantry, a troop of the Governor’s Body Guard, and detachments from the 2nd Hyderabad Cavalry an d the 3rd Hyderabad contingent Infantry; altogether about 2,400 fighting men besides the police were scattered in about 25 stations. 658 extra police were employed – 200 from Godavari of whom 100 were raised in the district and 100 in Krishna; 208 from vishakapatnam including 100 recruits from Ganjaml 108 volunteers from Kurnool, Cuddapah, north Arcot and Salem and 50 from Jaypore; 3 extra Assistant Superintendents and 11 extra Inspectors were also on duty. The extent of the country covered was about 5,000 square miles.

Page: 35;     

Golugonda Fituri of 1886:

Golugonda Fituri of 1891:

The Lagaral unrest in 1916-17:

Onjeri incident 3rd September:

Damanapalle ambush: September 1922 – police reinforcements:

Page: 86-87:

                Important events of the movement in 1922:

          January to August              :        Events prior to the out break –

Removal of Raju to Narsipatnam because of a rumor of the rebellion. Grant of land to him at Paidiputta as also a passport to go to Nepal.

          21 August                         :        Raju’s visit to peddavalasa  

22 August                         :        Attack on Chinthapalli Police Station  above Ghats

23 August                         :        Rebels around Sarabhannapalem.

23 August                         :        Passing Makavaram on their way to Krishnadevapeta –

Capture of two police constables on beat duty at Nadimpalem. Attack on Krishnadevipeta police station.

24 August                                                      :        Rebels at Sarbhavaram  –

                                                Attack on Rajavommangi police station.

28 & 29 August                  :        Rebels at Gudem, Devarapalli and Sirbali

1September                      :        Rebels at Gengaraju Madugula

3 September                     :        Attack on the police at Onjeri

23 September                    :        Rebels at Damanapalli (Capture of a Constable and supplies)

24 September                    :        Amush at Damanapalli ghat (Scott Coward and Hayter killed)

2 October                         :        Rebel at Rampol

                                                (Capture of constables and tapels)

14 October                        :        Rebels at Ramavaram ( Capture of a police)

15 October                        :        Attack on Addatigala police station

17 – 19 October                          :         Rebels at Pandrapolu, Nimmalapalem, Chippalapalem, Tallapalam and Bandapalli.

19 October                                 :         Attack on CHodavaram police station

23 October                                 :         Ramavaram encounter

25 October                                 :         Rebels at Dabbalapalem

                                                          (Capture of tapals from a constables)

26 October                                 :        Rebels at Mampa (Capture of police Sub – Inspector)

27 october                                 :         Rebels at Balarevulu (Capture of police Sub – Inspector)

30 October                                 :        Rebels at Chintalapudi ghat (Capture of 4 constables)

                                                          Attack of a convoy taking rations to the police party       at koyyuru (near Chinthalapudi ghat)

03 November                             :         Rebels at Makavaram (Capture of Police Inspector)

03 & 04 November                      :         Cutting of telephone wire at kottamallampeta and Chodyam                   

06 November                              :        Battle of Peddagaddapalem

(Fight between the police under John and the rebels – 4 rebels killed)

          07 November                              :        Action at Lingapuram

(Fight with the police under Sweney and Keene in the water course – 8 rebels killed)

 

Page: 98 -99;

                Notifications:

                    “Whereas the inhabitations of the muttas and villages named below and situated in the Agency division and the Vishakapatnam and Godavari Districts have failed to co-operate with the Government in effecting the arrest of the rebels concerned in the Rampa disturbances and have been guilty of harbouring the said rebels and supplying them with provisions, the Government of Madras hereby declare under section 15 of the Police Act V of 1861, that from the conduct of the inhabitants of those muttas and villages it is expedient to increase the number of police and that the cost of such additional police should be borne by the inhabitations of the said muttas and villages according to such appointments as may be made by the magistrates of the districts under section 15(4) of the Act”

          “The Lotugedda, Gudem, Dharakonda, Peddavalasa, Antada, Koyyuru and Malaram muttas of the Gudem taluk: The Kilamkota mutta of the Poddwa taluk:”

          There were 38 villages of Gudem taluk, 6 of Golugonda Taluk, 16 of yellavaram taluk of Vishakapatnam and one of the Peddepur taluk in the Godavari District – in all 61 villages were subjected to punitive tax.

                Vishakapatnam District:

          Gudem Taluk 30 Villages – Chittenapadu, Dandivalasa, Kottur, Ramanapalem, Tadapalem, Tammavaram, Mallavaram, Gopuram, Valasarajupeta, Golugondapeta, Guniputi, Sarabha Bhupala Patnam, Kottagudem, Vedurupalle, Gummudugonda, Chanma Chinta, Kummapuram Kondsingi, Padi, lakshmipuram, Krishnadevipeta, Chidikada, Peda Jaggampeta Agraharam, Dharmavaram Agraharam, Serabhupalli Agraharam, Ramachandra raju Agraharam, Krishnapuram, Kordavatipudi Agraharam, Kalava Voddu sarabavaram, Buradapalli Agraharam, Pottinagan Dhora palem Agraharam, Ramapeta Agraharam, Gantavari Kottagudem, Kondagokira Agraharam, Kitalove Agraharam, Kommika Agraharam, Kantaram Agraharam, Balaram Agraharam.

Golugonda Taluk – 6 Villages – Golugonda, Velagapalem, kottamallampeta, jogampeta, Chodiyam, Gadapalem.

Yellavaram Taluk: Gurtedu and Pandropolu muttas and 16 villages Sarabhavaram, Amirekula, Kiniligedda, Pakarattipad, Pudedu, Loddodi, Natangi, Chamagedda, Rachapalem, Muvvalavada, Tarlagedda Ramavaram, Gannavaram, Yerragonda, Addatigala, Lovamamidi, padiputta.

Godavari District: - Peddapur taluk – Velangi Village.

P:134

Those who built the Puja basalu were from six villages:

Sno

Village

SNO

Village

1

Kampamanupakalu

1

Ventali Yendadu

 

 

2

Modipu Chinnavadu alias Chevulavedu

2

Kondalayya Gondi

1

Karukari Lakshmayya

 

 

2

Jartha Gantadu

3

Palamamidi Gondi

1

Madudu Veerayya

 

 

2

Bachala Balayya

4

Etibrola

1

Village Munsif

 

 

2

Meta Yeradu

5

Sangol

1

Village Munsif

 

 

2

Locharla Rajayya (Pettandar)

6

Gudem

1

Mattadam Bodi Dora

 

 

2

Mandepu Bodayya

 

P:135

Gamukonda Valley camp was raided on information from two rebels – serapala Paridesu alias Chinnaiab of Serabhanna Palem and Sagina Nadipi Padal of Linganna Palli. Many things were recovered from the camp a gold medal, a camp not a mosquito net, two volumes of police orders of Narsipatnam: Copies of Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Penal Code: One lantern.  This might have been the hiding place of Raju, who thoroughly stidied the rules and law before proceeding further.

P: 168

Convictions during the rebellion:

Out of the 276 people convicted a maximum number of ten were from Gudemm, eight from Gannerlapalem, seven each from Makavaram, Thallapale, six each from Vankarai and Gummadiguda, five each from Nadimpalem, Dakarai and Nagapuram, four each from Dokkaluru, Kommangi, Old Krishnadevipeta, Ramannapalem and Sarika Mallavaram, three each from Ankampalem, Damanapalli, Katragadda, Gorisingi, Padi, Singanapalli, Sirapalli, Vemalapudi, Potharam, Koppikondam, Kunarapuram and Guddapalle.

In all 186 villages were affected. Many of the villagers were intered under a single section of the I.P.C. while the more active of them came under morethan one section, as 121,121A,122,143,145, 147,148 and 395-

Imprisonment for life:

Jariha endu doa alias Nayina Baliah                     Gummadiguda

Kakuru Gangadu                                             Gummadiguda

Saribala Paridesi                                             Kodisingi

Sagina Sanyasi Padal                                       Singampalli

Gam Mallu Dora                                              Nadimpalem

Bonangi Pothiraju                                            Sarabhannapalem

Sunkari Pothaiah                                             Thyaga

Sankoji Pandadu                                             Gunnerlapalem

Golusingi Sanyasi                                            Nakkalapudi

Karri Kannigadu                                              Old Krishnadevipeta

Kolangani Sangathulu                             Peddavalasa (3 years)

 

Local Officials Convicted:

          Muttadars  of Jerla and Makavaram,

          Village Munsifs of Gondipalli, Lakkavaram, Salai, Sangulu, Sirapalli, Boddamamidi, Katherloddi, Molagulametta, Madeen, Lingavaram, Cherukunipakalu, Vangasari, Kimerla, Ammavari Dharakonda, Marrikada, Guddepalli, Adderveedhi, Singaram, Revallu, Kpoyyur, Rellapalem, Kondevonchulu, Relangi, Kadapasinga, Peddabarada, Chinnabarada, Yerravaram, Sanagiri, Golugonda, Patamallampeta, Bongarangi, Amadalli, Lakangipakalu, Veeramusthipakalu, Kappalu, Yerrabommalu, Kistapuram, Singampalli.

Pattadars of Mala Makavaram, Lubbarti, Asonigir, Yerracheruvulu,

Mokasadars of Balaram, Kommika

Izaradars of Bidiagondi

Barikas of Jogulapalem, Koyyur

Outsiders convicted in the court of the Special Asst. Agent to Governor, Narsipatnam:

Vemalapudi Village                        - Dhatla Subba Raju, Papa Raju

Narasipatnam                              - K.Narayana Rao

Court of the Taluk Mogistrates, Gudem:-

Santragi Village                            -        Bakuru Krishtam Raju

                                                Santari China Sanyasi Raju.

Sessions Court. Vishakapatnam;

Allipudi village                    -        Rallapalli Kesanna

Chinnajaggampeta                       -        Panathula Chidambaram

Rewards were distributed in five saces amongst the police officers for capturing specific persons:

                      i.        Alluri Seetharama Raju: Amount of Rewards – Rs. 10,000.00

Intelligence Inspector – Upendra Patnaik              Rs. 500

Munsif Lagarai – Theegala Naganna                    Rs. 300

Havildar – A Chappunni Nayar                            Rs. 250

                   3 L/Naiks (100 each)                       Rs. 300

                   9 Constables                                  Rs. 100

                   3 Constables                                  Rs. 85

Jamadar of East Coast Special Police

          Kunchu Menon                                            Rs. 1200

Sub –Inspector – Alwar naidu                                 Rs. 1200

Naik Choyikutti                                               Rs. 500

12 Constables 300 each                                         Rs. 3600

Total                                                                    Rs. 10,000

 

ii.        Mallu Dora     Rs. 1000

Jamadar – Narayan Kurup                                                         Rs. 90

Constable No. 1632 Malabar Special Police                               Rs. 75

Constable no 1467    Malabar Special Police                             Rs. 60

Constable no 1568 Malabar Special Police                                Rs. 60

19 non – commissioned officers and men of Malabar Special police party

Each of Rs 15/-                                                                       Rs. 285

Inspector Radhakrishna                                                            Rs. 105

Sub Inspector No 937 of Cuddapah                                           Rs. 30

1 Head Constable and 5 Constables at Rs. Each 7 ½ each          Rs. 45

Village Magistrate of Nalagonda Lothanukan Dora                     Rs. 100

Village Magistrate of Seekavapalem, Lothachinniah                   Rs. 100

Village Magistrate of Velagalapalem Chotti Ramayya                 Rs. 50

                                                                                          -----------

                                                                                            Rs. 1000

                                                                                          ----------

                    iii.        Gam Gantam Dora                              Rs. 2500

Jamadar Ponnuswami                                                         Rs. 540

Havildar Ramaswami Nayudu                                             Rs. 270

13 Police constables at Rs. 130 each                                  Rs. 1690

                                                                                      -----------

                                                                                          Rs. 2500

                                                                                     ------------

                    iv.        Yendu padal

Distributed among eleven villagers                                         Rs. 1000

                    v.        Gokiri Yerresu-

Distributed equally among three villagers                                Rs. 500 

Details of the tribal Rebellions in the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh.

Extracts from

1)    Rebellious Hillmen - Subaltern Studies I - Writings on South Asian History and Society - RANAJIT GUHA DELHI, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, CALCUTTA CHENNAI MAUMBAI.

2)    A.P. State archives Monograph Series, Alluri Sitarama Raju,- Author – Dr.J.Mangamma- Published by A.P.State Archives, Tarnaka, Hyderabad. Year: 1983

3)    Tribal Revolts in Colonial Andhra – Godavari and Vizagapatnam Regions 1857 – 1917 – Baddela Rama Chandra Reddy – Meena Book Publications –Delhi –(INDIA). 

   

 

W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.

 

The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502

 

Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.

 

"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."

 

 

A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 

        

INDIRA SAGAR (POLAVARAM) CENTRAL EMPOWERED COMMITTEE ORDER

if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;

FORESTS ARE RESERVOIRS OF WATER AND LUNGS OF OUR ENVIRONMENTS.

SAVE THEM FROM MINING AND DESTRUCTION.

Click here to Bauxite Case: Read full article.

TRIBAL UNREST IN W GODAVARI

TRIBAL UNREST IN W GODAVARI FACT, FICTION AND FIRST INFORMATION REPORTS The non - tribal farmers’ associatation has been emboldened to complain that if the police had been stern from the begininning, things would not have come to such a pass. Let us remind ourselves that the tribal unrest of West Godavari is being led, not by the Naxalites or any violent group but by an entirely law abiding voluntary organisation ‘Sakti’. Can one hope that sense will prevail some-where in the official hierarchy concerned with the welfare of tribals and the tribal unrest will be met with justice and not further threats of ‘stren’ action and police cases? K.Balagopal (The author is general secretary of Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Committee) - Deccan Chronicle, Monday, May 5, 1997.

Reply letter to the National Human Rights Commission - S.R.Sankaran

"It is unfortunate that this matter has been dealt with an issue concerning Police alone. The very fact that there have been such a large number of 118 cases booked, all apparently all against 2175 tribals shows that there is some thing wrong about approach of teh Government and its agencies"

Requested to prepare the district wise (ITDAs) Traditional and Customary Boundary map

“Dr.P.Sivaramakrishna, Director Sakti, is requested to prepare the district wise (ITDAs) Traditional and Customary Boundary map (Resource map) in consultation with the elders of the habitats and traditional sages such as religious places,burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, bio diversity etc. and also Primitive Tribal Groups tenures for conferring rights under RoFR Act, 2006.” -- Smt. A.Santhi Kumari IAS, Commissioner, Tribal Welfare Dept.

Smt. K.Chayaratan,IAS, Commissioner, Tribal Welfare Dept.

“In WP NO.3734/93, Sakti Vs State of A.P. a division bench of A.P. High Court held that person includes Government. AP Forest Development corporation Limited. Which is an undertaking of Govt. of AP also constitutes a ‘person’. The right to collect cashew fruit from cashew plantaions situated in Naramvadi gudem vill. of Ashwarao pet Mandal in Khamma Dist. is null and void.” To, District Colelctor. Khammam Dist. GO.RT.No. 523, Dt: 01/12/1999,formation of cooperative of Tribals for sale of cashew fruit.

Vinod K Agarwal, IAS Commissioner, Tribal Welfare Dept.

“it has been represented to me that the checnhu tribals have been prevented from dropping fish seed in Rasul Cheruvu situated in the Scheduled area of your district by one fisherman Cooperative Society of Kondanagula. I request you to please get the matter looked into immediately and restore the right to the tribal over the said Rasul Cheruvu.” To, Sri. K.Madhusudhana Rao IAS District Colelctor. MBNR Dist. Copy to: P.Sivaramakrishna, SAKTI

ITDA official asked to pay wages

Horticltural officer of ITDA has been directed to pay the wages to his employees for having failed to discharge legitimate obligation under Minimum Wages Act. The matter was finally disposed off recently directing the officer to pay Rs. 1,25,775/- on which half of the amount as compensation for the delayed payments. They were being paid Rs. 19 instead of Rs. 26 by the time of filling petition in 1992. While the wage board ordered to pay Rs. 39 the horticultural officers of different farms in the agency area of East Godavari district were paying of Rs. 26. only. - Indian Express - November 24, 1995.

Issue of Cane wood to the Tribal beneficiaries

The forest range officer is directed to give necessary instructions to the section officers and forest guard to guide the beneficiaries in cutting and transporting the cane. - Dist. Forest Officer, Kakinada. (Memo.No. Rc.No.18945/85.L)

Forest working plan East godavari Dist. 1995 - 2005

50% of mango trees occupy the total no.of trees in kota Range and 30% in Pullangi range. Since there was an agitation from the tribals against the felling of mango trees, the department has decided to restrict the felling to 2.5 to 3 cum on an average in Kota range and 3 trees per hectare and around 4 cum per hectare on an average in Pullangi range, as against the above figures. The supply of wood to the factory was totally stopped by the High court of Andhra Praadesh as the felling orders issued by the state government are not obtained with prior permission of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India.

Studies & Reports

"The efforts of radical organizations and political parties have failed, whereas the effort of an N.G.O. has succeeded with more potential."
"Resources Must be Shared"

"Chandi Prasad Bhatt visit inspired me to take a different course of action, litigation to check the deforestration, since the hold of Naxalites [Maoist revolutionaries] is intense in these areas and they are also part of the nexus."

"The struggle will continue

not for the land,

but for the titles."

Partner sites

SAKTI in Brief

30 years work of SAKTI

A brief English note on Nallamala Chenchu Prapancham( Chenchu world in Nallamala Forest)

A note on Tribal Land moment in West Godavari and Khammam Districts

Sakti with Chenchus

Siva, one of the few academics working at grass root level

GOVERNANCE AND REBELLIONS IN TRIBAL AREAS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

 

 V & VI Schedules of Constitution

 

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