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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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Women and Governance in South Asia

Edited by:

Yasmin Tambiah

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Information on SAKTI (Download Document)

1. Full Name of the applicant Organization – SAKTI (Search for Action and Knowledge of Tribal Initiative)
2. Legal status and type of institution
(International / national NGO, competence centers, net works / consortiums etc)  National NGO
3. Year of Establishment- 1985 Registered under Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860 with a executive and general body of members.
  1. Contact email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  2. Location of head office Country:  India        City:   Hyderabad
  3. Full postal address of the head office: SAKTI, Flat no 305, 1st
    Block, Janapriya Abodes Gandhinagar, Hyderabad.  Telangana State .Pin 500080 Phone: 040 66624788 Mobile 9441427977, 9100931658 (M); facebook: https://www.facebook.com/saktisrk
  4. Contact person P.Sivaramakrishna, founder  secretary of society
  5. website: www.sakti.in
6.     Main thematic area
1 )  Securing Indigenous and Other Forest-dependent Population’s Rights and Interests.
2 ) Mapping vulnerabilities and capabilities with local names in the traditional customary boundary  maps  for sustainable interventions.
 SAKTI‘s experience with REDD+ work:
Following  activities in conservation and development of natural resources  ,documentation of tribal knowledge , training in livilihoods skills, ensuring their rights over natural resources  led to REDD+ work
  Skill development & Afforestation programmes:  Tribal youth selfemployment programs viz., carpentary, blacksmith, mechanics and cane furniture weavers etc , were initiated to  mould forest felling tribal  labourers as skilled community . Taken up afforestation on lands  under shifting cultivation with the support of  Integrated Tribal development Agency in East Godavari District during 1985-87. Operating weighing balances in markets  to check   cheating . Provided solar lighting  to  households of Kachuluru village in Devipatnam  mandal.
Checking deforestation -- SAKTI was successful  in filing  PILs ( Public Interst Litigation )  invoking Forest conservation Act, Land Transfer Regulation of Vth Schedule of Indian  constitution by stopping the wood supply from the forest to the local plywood factory (1987), restored rights of tribes on the allotment of trees producing kattha - a derivative  used  for medicinal purpose(1991) , closing laterite mines (1993) and prevented  felling of private forests by timber merchants (1990).
Andhra Pradesh (AP) State High Court put on hold the agreements of AP Govt. with alumina companies to excavate bauxite in Visakhapatnam district (2006).
Supporting land rights movement -The efforts in restoring the tribal lands emerged as a movement in West Godavari (W.G) and Khammam districts. The State government distributed  updated land records to the tribes in advance,followed by verification of enjoyments in the Gram Sabha ( habitation meetings) to identify and evict the encroachers (1997). Govt distributed 750 hectares cashew plantations raised by forest deptt to 800 tribal  familes in Khammam District. State rural development dept  engaged SAKTI to  train ’bare foot  land surveyors’. Supreme Court directed the AP State Govt. to appoint an independent officer to enquire into the atrocities committed against the tribes during the land rights movement (2009).
Disater preparedness  & developing traditional  water bodies - SAKTI has been active in the disaster preparedness and relief activities during the floods of Godavari river in 1987 and super cyclone in 1996. Renovated drinking water tanks in Dalit habitations. Introduced retrofitted houses, revived the economy of weavers and propagated disaster preparedness skills  among the school children.Renovated traditional irrigation tanks  as an alternative  to the construction of Bhupathipalem  reservoir displacing 300 familes  of 3 villages. Developed iron removal palnts to filter soluble iron from the ground water , wheel pump to pump up water , constructed spring boxes  with hand pumpsto get drinking water.
Rehabilitation of dsipalced  - Many irrigation projects are being constructed  in the low lands of  tribal areas  both  Godavari  Districts, displacing tribals from their habitations . SAKTI is helping  these communities  in getting due entitlements  in rehabilitation and motivating them to take up fishing in the water bodies that are being created.
Integrating traditional knowledge –SAKTI Initiated  a Tribal Knowledge Complex  in  its office campus in Rampachodavaram village, brought out calendars on tribal culture and their knowledge  systems for three years  with the support of ITDA (2008-10) . State Tribal welfare dept  engaged SAKTI to  train social mobilisers in preparing traditional customary boundary  maps (TCBM ). Published  the traditional forest management systems documented by the PVT Chenchu youth. These youth raised up to the level of knowledge partners in the sanctuary management in Rajeev wildlife sanctuary in Nagarjuna Sagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nallamala forests. Chenchu habitat is spread over 10000 Square kilometers  of forest in 5 districts Mahaboobnagar, Prakasam, Kurnool, Guntur and Nalgonda. In this forest 3500 square kilometers are under wildlife sanctuary and Tiger reserve.  For the first time  they were enrolled as voters  in  local body elections.SAKTI succeeded in  motivating the hunterr gatherer Chenchu PVT (population 49232 ,  307 habitations  and 12,000 families) to switch over  to  fishing by gaining rights over water bodies.  Developed  training modules for the implementation  of PESA ( Panchayatraj  Extended to Scheduled Areas ) –
Governance systems :Hill tracts are fragile eco systems and  tribes who live here are  vulnerable communities. Indeginous  communities are known as tribes in India  . Among the population of India   8% are  tribes, who live in the hill tracts  ( eastern ghats , western ghats , north east etc). Such areas in the hill tracts with highest population of tribes are governed by laws amended/regulated under V and VI Schedules of Indian constitution. So they are known as scheduled areas. Some more  laws  to strengthen particiaptory  governance systems  in these areas  are introduced ,such as,  Panchayatraj (local governance)  extended to scheduled area (PESA) and Scheduled tribes and other Forest dwellers recognition of rights  ,popularly known as Recognition of Forest Rights (RoFR) or Forest rights act (FRA). Govt  institution  ,ITDA through sub-plans , is working for the development of the tribes.
Lifestyle of tribes  -Among the tribes, 75 communities living in high forest areas are identified as particularly vulnerable tribes (PVTs), as they are living in pre agricultural stage of life style  in inaccessible areas .Tribes in these hill tracts are predominantly food gatherers, collect non timber forest produce (NTFP) to exchange in the markets, practice shifting cultivation.
 Each tribal habitation has traditional customary boundaries (TCMB ), traditional customary councils (Tcc ) which resolve the disputes,  celebrate the festival and maintain peace and harmony in their habitation
Rights over Traditional habitats -In 2006 Parliament enacted a legislation, RoFR recognizing the traditional practices and livelihood of the tribes in reserve forest covering 1) Rights over minor forest produce, 2) Water bodies, 3) Grazing, traditional resource access for nomadic and pastoralist,  4) Community tenures to PVTs, 5) Right to access biodiversity, intellectual property and traditional knowledge, 6) Other traditional rights along with individual rights for the lands under cultivation within the traditional boundaries of the habitation. Among commities constituted by Govt at differnt levels  to recognise  these rights ,50% members are elected  representatives of tribes.
Thus, the acts and rules and governance systems recognize the distinct lifestyle of tribes, their development needs and necessity to conserve the fragile forest eco system. The literacy rate among the tribes is below average.  Knowledge of governance systems of tribes is  not part of school syllabus. So we have to go a long way in understanding and relating to the tribes. Tribes also need lot of motivation in understanding and adapting to these governance systems.The rejection rate of claims  for recognition of rights in the forest is high . The land distribution is negligible . The situation of rehabilitation is poor.( Please refer  in the internet .’The Report of High level committee on socio  economic, health and educational status of tribal communities in India ’-  Virginius   XaXa  2014)
Action plan  to improve the conditions-
Facilitating the process of confering land rights, recognition of community and individual rights in the forests as envisaged in the Acts, rules .
  •  Facilitate the traditional boundary dispute resolution and use of  degraded forest lands in a rotation /fallow method to allow rejuvenation   of  resources.
  • Involving the tribes actively in forest conservation and wild life protection  activities,  promoting  use of alternative energies /natural resources  viz., solar energy, microhydal power plants etc
  • Maintain biodiversity inventories & getting recognition under Bio diversity Act 2002.
  •  Strengthen the local  governance systems PESA .
  • Motivating the tribes to learn the improved livelihood options using natural resources on a sustainable manner
  • Facilitating the communities  in preparing traditional customary boundary maps and superimposing GPS on these  maps, maintain Bio diversity registers  in  the tribal areas of East  and West Godavari districts
  • Document  traditional tribal knowledge to enable them to become knowledgeable   partners in  Papikonda wild life sanctuary management.  
  •  Provide legal aid .
  • Work with Govt in sustainable management of natural resources.
  •  Ensure proper rehabilitation  for the communities  facing dispalcement  under  Indira Sagar  (Polavaram ) multi purpose project.
 Project description
Project area -
East Godavari  and West Godavari  Districts in eastern ghats were named after  River Godavari as it passes through both Districts,  , population In E.G total  216629 /Sechuled tribe  146095(W.G total population  110940 Sechuled tribe  52569( 2001 Census). Papikonda wildlife ( bison ) sanctuary is spread over  in both districts.Kondareddies are PVTs (83096) predominantly residing in high  forest area which  is catchement and watershed area.  Koya is another tribe preferring settled agriculture, but still practicing shifting cultivation. Kondakapus are farm labourers. Valmikis, though numerically small,have highest literacy rate.
Adaptation to the climate change –The floods of the  river inundate the habitations on the bank.The communities  cultivate dry crops after flloods receed. SAKTI  takes  up preparedness and relief operations. To adjust   to the changing climatic situations that are affecting the sweet organge cultivation in these tribal areas, SAKTI encouraged tribes  to take up hill broom propagation and annatto seeds plantation locally known as ‘Jafra’. As part of the project, SAKTI  plans to facilitate the construction of the agricultural infrastructure through the ITDA to improve the productivity,alternative energy source as well as livelihoods of tribal farmers.  New opportunities, ecotourism in the Bison Sanctuary  and fishing  enable them maintain resources in sustainable way.
Displacement – Govt of India   taken  up  Indira Sagar ( Polavaram ) multipurpose  project across river Godavari . This project displaces tribes and other forest dwellers  of 46909  familes in  280   habitations  with apopulation of 189041   Responding to the petition of SAKTI, Central empowered committee constituted by Supreme Court  directed the   government to prepare  survey number wise rehabilitation plans for the tribes  , complete rehabilitation before taking up the construction of project. Now eviction of  7 villages at damsite  is going on. The eviction is for the time being put on hold as the  people are demanding completion of rehabilitation and settlement of dues. People are facing hardships due to  blasting at damsite
Project imapct –
1)The security of tenures encourages the communities to develop the resources and conserve the forest  under community ownership  and land restoration provides assured livilihoods
2) Proper rehabiliation will enable the dispalced to settle and  take up  emerging livilihoods.
3 )  Enable  the tribes to become knowledge partners in natural resource management and  promote eco friendly tourism
4 ) Empowering  communities with an understanding on administrative process to ensure proper entitlements.
5 )  Equip the tribes  to mitigate the disasters such as flash fllods, soil erosion   etc and build the capacities  to adjust to impact of climate change in them to tap the alternative energy sources such as solar energy, microhydal plants  etc.
The impact of climate change and the sustainable measures at relevant places are classified in four categories
1) Forests are reservoirs of water and lungs of environment. At each place  with local name  in  the traditional boundary map  on the status of tree cover, bio diversity, livelihoods: threats as explained by the local tribes. Suggested remedial and improvement measures at each place.
2) Agriculture diversity, changes, adaptation practices, drought proofing mechanisms followed by local community. Threats, remedial measures and sustainable practices at each place.
3) Disaster preparedness. Identification of vulnerable areas (landslides, soil erosion, flash floods, drinking water scarcity due to dying of perennial streams).
4) Renewable and sustainable interventions to meet the energy demands through hydrams, solar and biogas technologies at each place.
Methodology –
 1 ) Discussion and trainings   with the customary councils, gramasabhas, peoples representatives .
 2 ) Tools -  Preparation of Traditional customary  maps ,  Biodiversity inventories.   
   3 ) Advocacy -showcasing best practices and influencing decision makers
    4 ) Review and internal  evaluation
  1. Main target group: Tribes and other forest dwellers of Visakha, East and West Godavari, Khammam Districts and Nallamala forest of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Partnership -                         
SAKTI & donors .
Name of the funding agency
Name of the project
 Oxfam  UK
Tribal empowerment programme in East Godavari  West Godavari and Khammam Districts
1985 to  1990
ITDA Rampachodavaram
Trysems , afforestation
Water Aid
Drinking water – protection of springs , construction of iron removal plants  to filter ferrous sulfate content in ground water .
APCOST – Andhra Pradesh Council of Science – Technology
Solar lights installation
SPWD  ( Society for Promotion of Waste Lands )
Renovation of irrigation tanks and check dams   in tribal areas of East Godavari district.
Organizing community forest management in Eastern Ghats.
2002 to 2014
Aid India
Chenchu Empowerment   Project in Nagarjuna Sagar   Srisailam  Tiger Reserve
 SERP ( Society for Elimination of Rural  Poverty  Govt of AP
Training of bare foot land surveyors
Oxfam India  Society
South Asia Water Governance Project.
Triabl Empowerment Programme.
IWMI ( International Water Management Institute
Site Coordinator of the Field  Studies in the Strategic Analysis  of the River Linking  Project of India Godavari – Krishna link
UNICEF , Hyderabad
Improving the Water and  Sanitation and Nutrition situations in the Tribal areas in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh
WWF International
ICRISAT project
Creating data base  on Indira Sagar
Sustainable Tribal Empowerment Programme.
2005 to 2007
Oxfam India (Svaraj )/ SIDA
Strengthening food security and livelihoods through integrated management of water resources by communities programme.
Large scale wasteland mapping and preparation of a methodology for land use information for development planners: A case study of Rampachodavaram Mandal of East Godavari.
Action research   project  of a Sub- basin perspective plan Comprising of Practical Scientific Approach on Water Governance and Livelihoods and for Contributing  to Policy Dialogue on these at the Sub basin Level.
Oxfam  Trust  
Study  on Impact of Climate Change in Godavari basin
 ITDA  , Rampachodavaram
Training on RoFR in preparing traditional customary boundary map.
ITDA , Rampachodavaram
Developing and printing of Tribal Calendars.
ITDA Rampachodavaram
Developing Tribal Knowledge Complex in the campus of SAKTI.
WWF India
Study on Implementation of ROFR in AP
2008- to 2011
DST  ( Department of Science & Tecnology )  GOI
Empowering  the Chenchus  in NTFP  processing  to Enhance  the Economic Returns
CIDA  ( Canadian International Development Agency )
Capacity building of Communities and Civil Society  in Governance of  Natural Resources  in Khammam and East Godavari districts of A.P
2012- 2013
 Action Aid
Strengthening Adivasi Self Governance
Action Aid Chennai
Study on Livelihoods of Marine Fisher folk in South India
Oxfam America
Preparation of training material on disaster preparedness
  • SAKTI was member in State Wildlife Board.( 2010
  • Member in the Committee constituted by AP Govt to define ‘forests.’(1997 )
  • Member of CAPART  Hyderabad  region ( 2003 )
  • Partner of stengthening livilihoods around Protected areas network WWF India (2010 )
    • Member in Committee to award studies on PESA convened by National Institute of rural Development –UNDP.
Citations - Some of the observations on the achievements of SAKTI
1) ‘’SAKTI‘s strength has been a thorough understanding of administrative and legal procedures, which it has used to ensure that Tribals derive due and effectual benefits from the law’. ‘Cyclones in Andhra Pradesh – Oxfam GB publication “
 2) “NGO supported community based coonservation : NGOs are supporting community struggle for conservation of their resources in two ways one is to fight the attempts of entrenched classes to do any more damage and the second is to devise positive solutions for conservation. For example SAKTI is a federation of 23 community  groups who have been protecting  their  forests   over 10 years , much  before the advent of JFM, and because of their strength , are in a position  to consolidate  their conservation  efforts  by utilizing JFM  provisions.”-Aravind Khare in ‘Community based conservation in India’ 1998.Kalpavrish publication
Engaging to train barefoot land surveyors:
‘Subject: Training to barefoot surveyors under Velugu program – pilot project – reg.
Velugu program intends to build the capacities of the poor to secure their rights and entitlements.  The program envisages nurturing barefoot professionals who are available to the poor to access services and secure rights and entitlements.  It is found that land issue is one of the major areas where poor require lot of support and knowledge base.  Hence it is proposed to pilot in one mandal in SKLM district, the whole approach to building the capacities of the activists on land issues.
Mr. Sivaramakrishna and his team of experts on land issues have been requested by me to pilot this in one Mandal for a period of one month by conducting training (theoretical and practical) to the activists identified by the PD for land issues.  The training program will commence on 25th Feb at the mandal identified by the PD. ‘’  CEO SERP  dated 15-02-200210
3 ) “Two tribal villages are selected from two scheduled mandals from West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. Reddi Ganapavaram village is semi forest based  and Dhrabhagudem is forest based village . The tribal movements in Reddi Ganapavaram led by political parties under the leadership of non Tribals while, the tribal movements led by Tribals with the help of NGO SAKTI in the Dhrabhagudem village. The efforts of radical organizations and political parties have failed, whereas the effort of an NGO has succeeded with more potential.” – IJDS (International Journal of Development Studies) volume V, issue 1 January – June 2013 .
 CEC recommandations on rehabilitation of displaced under Indira Sagar – Polavaram
’The lessons learnt from the earlier projects such as Sardar Sarovar Project and the other major projects should be taken into consideration while finalizing the R&R Plan. The following specific suggestions are therefore made:
i)    the precise details of the land identified for the rehabilitation of the project displaced persons including the site for the construction of house and agriculture land should be made public. This would also imply that the particulars of the land proposed to be allotted to each of the displaced person should be decided in advance;
ii)    the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the R&R should be done by an independent Monitoring Committee consisting of eminent experts  and  NGOs with  adequate  powers to effectively perform its function;
iii)         concurrent monitoring and evaluation of the progress made in the implementation of the R&R should be carried out under the directions and supervision of the Monitoring Committee. If the R&R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred/stopped;
iv)   the R&R should be implemented in such a way that minimum disturbance is caused to the PAP and the compensation for land is in the form of land. Concurrent audit of the R&R works should be carried out. The Monitoring Committee should be capable of taking rational decisions and making recommendations independently uninfluenced by the Government.’’ Recommandations of Central Empowerment Committee in IA  No 1572&1578 dated 09-11-2006 , SAKTI vs Govt .
Engagaging SAKTI in the implementation of Forest Rights:
’Kind attention is invited to the reference cited, wherein Dr.P.Siva RamaKrishna, Director ‘Sakthi’, RC Varam, East Godavari district was requested to prepare the district wise (ITDAs) Traditional and Customary Boundary map (Resource map) in consultation with the elders of the habitats and traditional usages such as religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, bio diversity etc. and also Primitive Tribal Groups tenures for conferring rights under RoFR Act, 2006. ”- Commissioner Tribal Welfare.
4 ) ‘’In Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve (Andhra Pradesh), participatory mapping to claim CFRT has included detailed observations based on traditional knowledge and cultural practices, and the claims would cover virtually all of the tiger reserve (Sivaramakrishnan, SAKTI, personal communication).’’
“At some sites, CFRT claims have been processed and accepted. Amongst the first were community rights to a reservoir (for fish, water) and forest produce obtained by the Chenchu tribe in Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve (Andhra Pradesh),”
“Some state governments actively encouraged such involvement. In Andhra Pradesh, for instance, civil society groups were commissioned by the government to help special groups like the Chenchu PTG to make customary use maps for claiming
CFRT (Sivaramakrishna 2010).  Manthan   in “Report of National Committee on Forest Rights Act “– December 2010 A Joint Committee  Ministry of Environment and Forests and Ministry of Triabl Affairs  Govt of India
Riding the storm – 2004 Community experience from diaster preparedness  initiatives in AP – Oxfam publication ( see disater management www.sakti.in )
Evaluation–Mukta Srivastava –( now Secretary NAPM ) .(See SAKTI evaluations–ww.sakti.in)
 Land marks in the progress of SAKTI
I) Land marks in the progress of SAKTI
  • 1987 officials allowed SAKTI to copy land records
  • In 1996 officials were forced to distribute land records to tribes
  • High Court allowed locus standi of SAKTI in all the courts adjudicating land rights.
  • In 2001 SERP engaged SAKTI to train bare foot land surveyors.
    • Forest department allowed collection of cane wood by tribes  for trysems ( 1995 )
      • SAKTI was the member of the drafting committee of JFM guidelines (1992), SAKTI did not participate in the programme as the department ignored implementation of rest of tribal forest interface guidelines of FC act such as regularizing the encroachment, forest villages, minimum wages etc.
      • Engaged as trainer in preparing customary boundary maps.
      • Chenchu PVT taken up fishing in Rajeev wild life sanctuary.
      • Published traditional knowledge documented by Chenchus.
      • Drinking water
      • Hand pump repair
      • Spring boxes with  hand pumps  , Wheel pump
      • Renovation of drinking water tanks in dalit habitations.
      • Irrigation –
      • Renovation of tanks
      • Fishing in water bodies
      • Forced the Govt to include 57 households of backwater affected habitation Chodiveedhi in Surampalem  rehabilitation
      • Supported Bhupathipalem, Musurimilli, Indira Sagar displaced tribes to calculate the compensation, bargain for better package of rehabilitation.
      • CEC of Supreme Court directed to complete rehabilitation first, before taking up Indira Sagar project.
      • Retrofitted houses
      • Reviving the weaver economy.
      • Training the school children in DP &M.
      • Supreme Court directed to appoint an independent officer.
      • Habeas corpus to produce Tokala Mallaiah from illegal police custody.
      • Chenchu PVTs were enrolled for the first time as voters in local body elections.
      • Elections were conducted to Cooperative societies of Girijan Cooperative Corporation.
      • Timber supply to plywood  factory stopped ( 1987 – 95 )
      • Private forest felling was prevented.( 1990 )
      • Mines were closed.(1993 )
      • Rights on  katha trees  restored ( 1991 )
      • Eviction of tribes from forests stayed (2003).
      • Samata judgment allowing APMDC is challenged; agreements put on hold (2006).
      • Proactive steps to recognize the uses in the forest irrespective of applications(2010)
      • Forced Forest and Tribal welfare depts. to pay the arrears in the minimum wages.
II )    Forest –
 III)       Water
IV). Rehabilitation
V          Disaster Preparedness –
VI          Alternative energy – solar lighting to all the households of Kachuluru village in Devipatnam mandal.
VII        Human rights
VIII       PILs to conserve the forests
IX         Minimum wages








W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



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