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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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Women and Governance in South Asia

Edited by:

Yasmin Tambiah

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 By Our Staff Reporter 

The Hindu, Nov 24, 1997 

Aswaropet (Khammam dist), Nov, 23 

Tribals have been organising themselves in a big way in a cluster of villages in the remote Aswaropet and Dammapet mandals of Khammam to stake claim for the lands under the illegal occupation of non-Tribals. They have started parading large groups from village to village besides claiming as their own the lush green orchards and tobacco farms, thus sounding an alarm to big farmers who have developed them over the years. Backed by a Rampachodavaram planning to take recourse to agitation methods also to mount pressure on the administration for restoration of their lands.

 Centre stage of face off 

Kesappagudem, a tiny hamlet, eight km from here, has become the centre stage of the tribal and non-tribal face off ever since the volunteers of Sakti, the Organisation that has spearheaded the tribal protests on the neighbouring jeelugumilli mandal (West Godavari), has taken up an exercise to identify the tribal lands under the occupation of different farmers. 

The Tribals who have so far been eking out their living on bamboo-cutting and firewood collection have pinned their hopes now on the standing crops ready for harvest around the village. About ten acres of land has already been occupied by them in the village.

 The organisation has for the past few weeks been thoroughly in touch with every family in the village an trying to motive them for the land struggle. The police, obviously as a precautionary measure, arrested 11 volunteers, including two women all from West and East Godavari districts, on Wednesday night and let them off immediately. The Tribals appeared to be annoyed by the police action. The Tribals armed with bows and arrows, were seen closely guarding the volunteers at survey work.

 A majority of the tribal families have lost their lands to the landlords over a period of time because of the illegal occupation. Bethu Veeraswamy, a tribal farm worker, complained that the two acres of land assigned in favour of his wife in occupation of a non-tribal farmer, Bethu Seeramulu, another tribal farmer, is in possession of the pattas for the five acres of land assigned to him. But the revenue authorities, he alleged, were yet to show him where the land was. He had regularly been paying the revenue in hope of taking possession of the land one day or the other.

 Similarly, another resident claimed to be owning 10 acres of land in survey no. 297/66. Though he has pattas in support of his claim, he has never been allowed to till the land by the land owner during the past 27 years. So was the case with Behtu Raulmma. She was allotted 1.75 acres of a land in the neighbouring Jammigudem village without being allowed to enjoy it. The case of Bethu Nageswar Rao is different from all others. He was assigned five acres of land and asked to develop it by clearing the jungle growth in it. He spent thousands of rupees on the land before he was asked to abandon it on the plea that it fell in forest limits.

  'Landless are in better position'

 The volunteers are of the view that the landless are in a better position than those having lands merely on paper. The landless families could at lest be considered for assignment of some land, the latter would not be eligible for it. Villagers are now ready to occupy more land unless they are meted out justice by the administration. Revenue officials have been frequenting the village as part of their effort to find out an amicable solution to the land issue.

 In Rajanagaram village of Aswaraopet mandal, a group of Tribals had a field day in the 12-acre coconut plantation owned by a non-tribal farmer recently. Mistaking it as on occupied land, they wreaked vengeance and quenched their thirst plucking a few hundred coconuts. In vutalapalli and Aladivarimakam village the Tribals occupied a few acres of lands and marked the boundaries with palmyra twigs. 

In Maddikonda village the Tribals took recourse to forcible methods to occupy lands. Tension prevailed in the village as the non-tribal farmers tried to defend and the revenue authorities rushed to the village to defuse tension.

 Responding immediately to the situation, the Revenue Department has taken up the enjoyment survey to find out the extent of land under illegal occupation in Kesappagudem, Vedantapuram and Ramannagudem villages. Mandal revenue officials have said that over 3, 500 acres of land is available for distribution to the landless in the 19 scheduled area villages and 1 non-scheduled area villages in the mandal. 

In Kesappagudem, a non-scheduled village, as much as 120 acres of land is in the occupation of different farmers in survey no 297. If the cases of illegal occupation are proved in the survey the land would be restored to legitimate owner immediately, they said. 

In Dammapet mandal revenue officials have acted promptly and restored to the tribal farmers 42 acres of land which has for long been under the illegal occupation of non-tribal farmers. A cashew nut garden extending over 28 acres in lachapuram village was taken over from a non-tribal formerly the department. It would be given back to the Tribals.







W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



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