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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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Women and Governance in South Asia

Edited by:

Yasmin Tambiah

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India being the second highest populated Country in the World (2001 census) and a high population growth with a limited land and water resources (subsequently decreasing the man – land ratio), has to sustain itself in all respects by making requisite efforts for increasing food production.

In India, during the First Five Year Plan in 1951, major emphasis was laid on centralized planning based upon macro – level indicators of growth.  The above process of planning has shown an increased agricultural and industrial production.  In spite of this, about 300 million people live below the poverty line, which clearly indicates the failure of development to ensure distributive justice.  The concept of decentralized planning is as old as the Gandhian economic thought.  The idea of formulating decentralized plans are micro level to effectively implement the imbalance created by the centralized micro – level plan was conceived during the Fourth Five Year Plan and district was selected as an optimum unit of planning.  In addition to this, the implementation of special area programmes and other centrally financed schemes to uplift the rural population could be successfully undertaken by adopting decentralized planning.  The above method of planning brings a better perception of the local needs of areas, makes better informed decision making possible, gives people a greater voice in decisions concerning development and welfare’s enables optimum utilization of local resources and gives growth potential of local areas for improving production and making development self  sustaining.

In India, organized developmental planning machinery follows a top-down approach in Indian Planning Scenario needs to be inverted to ‘bottoms-up’ approach to make it more responsive and meaningful. It suffers from the basic handicaps of lack of organized planning machinery below district level and heavily reliant on out-dated information for futuristic solutions. Lack of suitable planning framework to address locale-specific issues, qualified Manpower for Planning and absence of spatial database / framework at grass-root level.

Cadastral level information forms a major source of linkage of property ownership, habitat dwellings in villages and above all the common property resources existing in a village.  The Cadastral Survey system that is currently in vogue today has not undergone any transformation after its inception during the colonial rule, which met the country’s requirements all these years. These maps formed the chief source of information for revenue administration.  In the light of current days’ technology, the suitability of these large-scale maps is increasingly questioned under the existing socio-economic requirements. 

While executing the national land use/cover mapping for the country, a great disparity in the agricultural statistics compiled by NRSA and Directorate of Economics and Statistics which was reconciled based on ground based surveys.  Subsequently instructions were issued by the Government of Andhra Pradesh to all the district collectors to undertake corrective measures while compiling statistics for the tehsils/district/state.  In the light of the above background it is essential to have reliable and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution and extent of land use/cover at village level.

Sustainable development of any natural resources need a critical appraisal of existing land and water resources, keeping in view the importance of decentralized planning present study is undertaken. In the present study SPWD/ SAKTI is working in collaboration with National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad on characterization of wastelands in selected villages of Rampachodavaram mandal, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh.

The present study intends to develop typologies keeping in mind various land-use classes, the status of degradation, physical types of wastelands within them, their ownership, decision-making unit related to them, the present land use, potential land use, and the technologies available for attaining potential land use, the technological, economic and institutional constraints which act as impediments. The exercise also intends to indicate the optimal use of technology and budget for better developmental planning at local level.


Spatial distribution of land use/ land cover categories and the pattern of their change are prerequisite for planning, utilization and management. However, conventional ground methods are unsuitable for timely and reliable information base. They being labour intensive and time consuming, soon become outdated, particularly in a rapidly changing environment. Therefore, acquisition of reliable, comprehensive, generalized and timely data on land use/land cover attains prime importance for developmental purpose and management of resources. The following was taken up with the following objectives:

  • Mapping the spatial distribution of land use/ land cover at village/ cadastre level.
  • Identification of wastelands with the potential for agriculture/ horticultural development.
  • Comparative study of land use/ cover derived from remote sensing data vis-à-vis Village Registers (Pahanis/ Adangals).
  • Generation of action plan for land and water resources, development data.
  • Linking with attribute data collected from field.

3.         STUDY AREA
Rampachodavaram Mandal of East Godavari district is part of the Agro-eco subregion-18.4 Utkal plain and east Godavari delta hot dry sub humid eco-sub region. It lies between the geographical coordinates of 17033’ 24.46” to 170 44’ 33.25” N and 770 51’ 27.10” to 780 03’ 33.59” E, and is covered by Survey of India topo maps 65G/ 15 and 65K/2.

The mandal receives an average annual rainfall of about 1300 mm. Total geographical area under study is about 803 ha, comprising of three revenue villages viz, Burugubanda village, with geographical area is 359.30 ha., which lies in between 17025’21.92” to 17026’24.59” N Latitude and 81048’55.98” to 81050’57.08” E Longitude, Korumilli village has geographical area is 332.88 ha. and lies in between 17026’05.25” to 17026’12.58” N Latitude and 81050’14.88’ to 81052’11.90’ E Longitude and Bhimavaram village has the geographical area is 107.50 ha. Which lies in between 17027’48.16” to 17028’26.60” N Latitude and 81048’46.05” to 810’49’43.15”E Longitude. The general slope of the area is towards south- north with an altitudinal range from 1-3% to 8-15%. Fig-1 shows the location map of the study area.

The selected three villages have the following characteristics.

  • Physiographically diverse in terrain
  • Economically backward, Inaccessible in major tracts
  • Getting the focus of medium irrigation projects like Bhupathipalem and Musurumilli

3.1 Geology:
Geologically the area is composed of structural hills, undulating plains, intermontane valleys and buried Pedi plains under Charnockite, Khondalites and granite gneisses landscapes. The soils are derived from metamorphic rocks like granite gneisses and quartzite. The soils exhibit deep red in color. The general topography is of undulating or rolling plains.






Fig 1. Location map of study area

3.2  Physiography
The study area is conspicuous with its high structural hill side slope which is covered in the extension of Eastern Ghats. Four physiographical units, namely structural hills side slopes, and intermountain valleys are encountered in the study area.

Hills, pediplain and inter-mountain valleys comprise the major physiographic units. Inter-mountane valleys support the development of coarse loamy deep soils, while, hill side slopes with moderate dense vegetative cover have lead to  the development of moderate to deep skeletal soils with loamy texture.  In addition to information on soils, the parameter which contribute to plant growth namely, calcareousness, stoniness and degree of erosion also are mapped.  Additionally, based on information on soil and terrain conditions, land capability classes were defined.  Such information helps in preparation and implementation of optimum land use plan for reclamation measures. 

3.3 Climate 
The climate is Semi-arid/ sub-tropical, cooler in the hilly tribal area because of altitude and moderately dense vegetation cover. The warmest months are April to June. The temperature goes down in the hills with onset of monsoon and reaches minimum by January. Dry periods are during the December to May and wet periods extend from June to November.

3.4 Natural Vegetation 
The natural vegetation comprises of dry deciduous trees and some are grasses.  The study area is having a variety of natural flora and fauna. Thin and mixed forests are observed. Tamarind, beedi leaves, Palmyra trees and broom grasses are the commercial importance for rural villages.

3.5 Soils

Soils of the study area vary from moderate deep to deep and are acidic in nature. They are very rich in organic matter and exhibits dark grayish brown to dark red colour. The soils are skeletal in nature and vary from silty clay loam to clay loam.

Soils are highly fertile due to high organic matter content and support vegetation types.  Red soils, black, mixed red and black soils and alluvial soils types found to occurs in the study area. In the spares vegetation cover the soils are moderately eroded.

4.1       Satellite Data
The basic satellite data selected corresponds to Cartosat-I (PAN) data of November 2006 period. The exact date of pass is shown in the respective maps prepared.

4.2 Collateral Data
Cadastral village maps and Survey of India (SOI) topographical maps on 1:50,000 scale viz., 65 G/15 is used as collateral information during the study. Revenue Village Maps (RVMs), Adangal registers, Field Measurement Books (FMBs), and other socio-economic data.


The methodology attempted here is on-screen visual interpretation of Cartosat 1 PAN image of November 2006 period using image analysis software. The thematic maps prepared along with their aerial extent are enclosed and methodology represented in flowchart (Fig 2).   

Cartosat 1 PAN image was interpreted visually following on-screen visual interpretation approach.  The approach consists of delineation of land use/ land cover from PAN data and verifying them on the ground and finalizing the map after incorporating the necessary changes vis-a vis field observations. 





































Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the approach


Similarly, for deriving information on soils, physiographic units were delineated with the help of Survey of India topographic maps and manifestations of various physiographic units on the PAN image.  Further divisions in the physiographic units were made based on land cover, erosion status and drainage pattern.  Soil composition of each physiographic unit was defined by excavating soil profile from representative physiographic unit, and collecting soil samples there from for analysis in the laboratory.  After refining the physiographic boundaries, in the light of ground observations, soils were classified based on morphological features and soil chemical analysis data up to phase level (USDA). Soil map was subsequently finalized by incorporating the Information on soils in each physiographic unit.  The land use/ wastelands and soil maps, thus generated, were used to develop a digital database in a GIS environment.  Attribute data on terrain and socio-economic conditions were linked to geo-database.


Cartosat-1 PAN image enabled deriving information on land use/land cover up to level III at 10 000 scale.  Land with/without scrub is the major wastelands category encountered in the area.  At the mapping scale, further sub-division, namely   degraded scrub with cashew, land with scrub along the streams, land with scrub within agricultural land, and land without scrub were identified.  However, land with/without scrub, degraded forest, sheet rock areas do occur in the area. 

The digital data bases, as mentioned earlier,  comprises information on wastelands, soils and attribute data that links each plot/holding to the data containing spatial information besides indicating ownership, demography details for the village. Integration of such information may help developing a suitable strategy for reclamation of wastelands, and will enable in prioritizing the reclamation efforts depending upon the availability of time and human and financial resources. 

The study enables development of updated digital database at cadastral level that links each plot/holding to the data containing information on the current land use. Also, indicate ownership, demography details for the village.  This will enable the state governments to harness computerization of the databases for the records for instantaneous updating and retrieval for manifold uses.

Standard GIS package has been used for analysis of spatial and non-spatial database.  Different types of primary input   datasets   have been collected from the field and the attribute information is linked cadastre wise in GIS platform. The primary elements of non spatial database are as follows.

 5.1 Non-spatial Data

  • Survey No. / Sub Division No. & Name of the field or so
  • Total Extent in Acres
  • Land that is not fit for cultivation
  • Land fit for cultivation
  • Type of Land (Patta/ Inam/ Govt.)
  • Land detail [Dry/ Dry with irrigation facility/ Wet (one season)/ Wet (two seasons)]
  • Water resource available
  • Ayacut available
  • Name of the Pattadar
  • Name of the present cultivator
  • Extent in the hold of cultivator
  • Holding type
  • Extent sown
  • Season (Kharif/ Rabi)
  • Month
  • Name of the crop
  • Expected yield  (in Kgs/ Acre)

5.2 Spatial Data Generated using Satellite Data

  • Transportation Network & Settlement Map showing different types of road network and settlement location in the study area.
  • Cadastral Map showing the cadastral boundaries.
  • Land Use/Land Cover Map showing different land use/land cover categories derived from remotely sensed satellite data. 
  • Drainage Map showing the details of drainages and the water bodies.
  • Soil Map showing the details of soil phases/ types as per USDA soil taxonomy.

The respective above village wise maps are enclosed in the report.

5.3         Ground Truth
Ground truth verification of doubtful areas in the study area was carried out in January and March 2007. Ground measurements form an important component of satellite-based remote sensing studies, which will enhance the interpretation accuracy. This will also aid in increasing the reliability of remotely sensed data by enabling verification of interpretation details and supplementing it with the information that cannot be obtained from satellite imagery. Also, these visits will enable interaction with various officials to infer better information from satellite data.

6.         SCALE OF MAPPING 
The scale of the final maps prepared is on 1:10,000.

Land use refers to, `man's activities and the various uses which are carried on land'. Land cover refers to, `natural vegetation, water bodies, rock/soil, artificial cover and others resulting due to land transformations’. The terms land use and land cover being closely related is interchangeable, because the former is generally inferred based on the cover and on the contextual evidence. The purpose of a land use/land cover classification system is to enable to arrange/group the array of information available under a suitable framework to facilitate systematic inventory and mapping besides incorporating land use details obtained from satellite and other sources. The present framework of land use/land cover classification developed is amenable to remotely sensed satellite data on 1:10,000 scales. The classification developed for the present study discusses the division of land use/land cover classes as Level-I, LeveI-lI, Level-III and Level-IV. The former gives a broad categorization of different land use classes and the latter gives semi-detailed sub-division of information of each broad class. The land use/land cover classification is given in Table1. It meets the basic information needs of the study.

8.         FINAL OUTPUTS
The final outputs include:

  • Land Use/Land Cover Map showing different land use/land cover categories derived from remotely sensed satellite data on 1:10000 scale.
  • Transportation Network & Settlement Map showing different types of road network and settlement location in the study area.
  • Drainage Map showing the details of drainages and the water bodies. Soil Map showing the details of soil types as per USDA soil taxonomy.
  • Cadastral Map showing the cadastral boundaries.
  • Area estimates
  • Report describing satellite remote sensing techniques and results of the study

Land uses in rural areas of India consist of small agricultural fields, complex vegetation covers, and sparsely distributed residential areas, have been problematic in terms of land use mapping using satellite remote sensing data due to the complexity of the spatial structure. Availability of high resolution satellite data and the advancement of object-based image classification techniques provide a new opportunity for mapping detailed land use/Land cover classification using satellite imagery.



Table 1


Sl No.







 Built up(rural)

Rural (Residential)



Unmetalled road


Metalled road





Irrigated Agriculture



Dry land Agriculture


Pulses/ Millets*


Red gram*

Other crops + scattered trees







Current fallow


Long fallow*





Dense forest


Degraded forest





Scrub along streams

Scrub along streams

Land with scrub

Land with scrub

Degraded plantations with scrub

Cashew dominant

Eucalyptus dominant

Salt affected



Stony waste

Sheet rock










Individual Trees

Toddy, Tamarind, etc.


based on ground observation survey number wise




The   major   land use/ land cover   categories that   are   identified   include built-up land, agricultural land, forestland, wasteland, Water bodies and others. The detailed description of   the individual classes for the selected villages    is given below.

9.1 Built-up land 
It is defined as an area of human habitation developed due to intensive non-agricultural use.  Figure shows a schematic view of the Built-up land use pattern often seen in the selected three villages of Rampachodavaram mandal, depicted on a panchromatic image. A typical land use pattern consists of houses (usually with backyards), agricultural fields (Paddy, Tubers, etc.), forests, and networks of roads. Residential areas are usually surrounded by agricultural fields growing rice, wheat,   vegetables, etc. The boundaries between residential areas and agricultural fields are relatively clear for human interpreters. Road networks are not in a grid-like arrangement, and the shapes and sizes of parcels are not uniform. A house in the countryside usually has a backyard or a small plot of ground for growing vegetables. 

The houses are built within one’s own agricultural land. These are rectangular in fashion and are built of the material that is available from the forest. These houses are constructed on an elevation of two to three feet with walls made of bamboo, plastered with mud and roofed with palm leaves. The houses are highly functional and meet the requirements of a farmer’s family. They are leak-proof, quite warm during winter and cool during summer.

Important settlements that are identified in the area are depicted in the respective village maps. The respective village wise area occupied   under this category is shown in table 2, 3 and 4.  Spatial extent is shown in Fig. 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 respectively.


9.2 Agricultural land 
Agricultural land may be defined broadly as land used primarily for production of food and fiber. The chief indications of agricultural activity on satellite imagery are distinctive geometric field and road patterns on the landscape and the traces produced by livestock or mechanized equipment. The interface of Agricultural Land with other categories of land use may sometimes be a transition zone in which there is an intermixture of land uses at first and second levels of categorization.

Agricultural land use is dependent on land system and land units. It shows wide variations in the land use patterns in different parts of area. The   present land use appears to have well adapted itself to relief, soil, rainfall pattern besides the natural vegetation and the socio-economic activities   of the people. The major cropped area encountered is in the inter-fluvue / fluvial plains and gently sloping areas. The surface/ground water and major/minor streams and surface storage tanks across higher order streams provide irrigation for most of the areas and to a limited extent in some of the upland regions of the study area. The important crop growing areas are in the valley-fill   and fluvial plain. Because of good ground water potential and moisture holding capacity in low-lying areas, crops are grown   both in Kharif   and Rabi seasons whereas   in   the pediment zones confined to the uplands with limited surface and ground water, only Kharif crop is grown. The surface storage tanks across higher order streams provide irrigation for most of the areas and to a limited extent in some of the upland regions of the study area.

The dry land is available in large extent when compared to shifting cultivation and wet lands.   Shifting cultivation areas are found on the hill slopes and tops where certain extent of forest land is degraded and denuded.  In some tribal settlements terrace cultivation is also found on the hill terrains which also fall under wet category.  The major portion of wet land cultivation in the agency tracts is seen by the sides of hill streams, where plain landscape is available.  Majority of the tribal farmers grow the paddy crop in wetlands during kharif season.  Mixed cropping pattern (pulses, millets and oil seeds) is a dominant feature in both dry and podu cultivation. 

Draft animals drawn wooden plough is the major technology used in both dry and wet cultivation.  Cattle dung and green manure are used for fertile the soil in these two types of farming.  The tribal still use the local variety of seeds and seedlings in all kinds of farms.  Weeding is done manually.  In the harvesting of the crops, the tribal use the sickle to cut the stalk.  The thrashing is done with the help of draft animals or manually.  The food grains are stored in bamboo bins or in big clay pots for future use.

The tribal farmers are following the traditional method of bund formation with the pebbles, rocks and mud especially in dry and shifting cultivation areas.  The crops yields basically depend on the fertility of the soil. Generally the tribal farmers do not take much attention to improve the soil fertility and the yield is low.

The agricultural land in the study area have been classified as

  • Dry Agricultural land (other crop, Pulses, Millets, Tubers and vegetables)
  • Paddy (Kharif)
  • Plantation(Cashew/Eucalyptus)
  • Fallow /Long Fallow

 9.2.1Dry Agricultural land (other crop, Pulses, Millets, Tubers and   vegetables)
Satellite imagery acquired during November 2006 clearly shows the pattern   of the crops that are existing in the area. Ground truth visit and discussions with farmers   and officials reveals that, the lands are usually ploughed well in advance with the receipt of first showers and kept ready for Kharif sowing. Seeds are sown after the early monsoon showers that provide enough moisture for germination. The growth of crops is dependent on the rains, which are usually erratic. Long dry spells are common during early stages of crop growth. Kharif crops are often severely affected due to the prolonged dry spells resulting in reduction of yield and occasional total failure of crops. It was also   observed that, in general, the crops grown on the uplands do not get much attention of the cultivators and the farming is done by old traditional methods, without providing enough protection to the lands against the high intensity rainfall. The insufficient   considerations to the actual land conditions, the accelerated rate of erosion and the depletion of the fertility have resulted in degradation of these lands. The main crop under this is category is pulses, millets, tubers and vegetable. The respective village wise area occupied   under this category is shown in table 2, 3 and 4. Spatial extent is shown in Fig. 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 respectively. Plate 4

9.2.2 Irrigated Agriculture Paddy and Vegetable: 
Areas sown during Kharif/Rabi season are categorized under this class. In the study area, these   lands are seen surrounding village sites and along valleys. These areas are well nurtured both in terms of fertilizer application, pest control and usage of high yield variety practices.  The valleys along with its fringes are seasonally inundated by rainwater due to accumulation of seepage water from adjoining higher lands; paddy cultivation is done extensively by leveling and bunding along the contour. The additional water requirement is met by surface storage tanks (Plate-4/6) these tanks are constructed across valleys by plugging the streamlet which intercept the runoff, providing irrigation to the lands in the valleys for cultivation of paddy.  Chains of such tanks are noticed along the course of streams along valleys providing irrigation for intensive cultivation. Second crop is mainly with well irrigation. The respective village wise area occupied   under this category is shown in table 2, 3 and 4. Spatial extent is shown in Fig. 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 respectively. Plate 4.

9.2.3 Plantation 
Areas under perennial bushy and tree crops fall under this category. The plantations in this area are Cashew and Eucalyptus. The individual category wise area is shown in table 2, 3 and 4. In addition to this, individual trees points are mapped and represented in T Burugubanda village. Fig 3.2 and Plate 2. The trees are seen in linear pattern along the field bunds. 
Generally plantations are well separable from cropland during Rabi season because of latter’s relatively low response particularly in red and infrared spectral regions on the satellite imagery (multi-spectral).

9.2.4 Fallow land 
Cropland, which is not brought under cultivation fall under this class.  Fallow land as conceived in this study corresponds to current fallow and Long fallow, which pertain to the current year. Fallow land spectrally has good separability from croplands but often they tend to intermix with certain wasteland classes. Such spectral confusion/ misclassification are widely rectified after systematic ground truth visit. Plate 3 and 4. The respective village wise area occupied   under this category is shown in table 2, 3 and 4. Spatial extent is shown in Fig. 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2.

    • Forest  

Forest form the base of sustenance of life on the earth. Normally, the forest regions are identified within the notified forest boundaries. The type of vegetation is determined by climate, edaphic and biotic factors coupled altitude.  In the study area, the existence of forest is observed mainly on the hills and upland areas. The minor forest produce includes beedi leaves, gum, honey and tamarind. All the forest could be sub-divided into a) Deciduous forest b) Degraded forest. Each of these categories has been described in detail here under –
9.3.1 Dense/Deciduous Forest
The forest observed in the area is of deciduous type. The variation in altitude along the hilly parts of villages, with varied topography, good rainfall and variation in soil types harbors rich vegetation lying in the tropical deciduous forest. In the area the vegetation in general is predominantly deciduous and covers major portions of hilly tracts of villages. It is observed in the upper reaches of Mulla Metta (TBurugubanda), Pedda konda (Bhimavaram) hills are composed of dense forest, due to undisturbed conditions. The valley portions are composed of mixed type of vegetation in association with deciduous species. The major forest species are Xylia xylocarpa, Adina cordifolia, Anogeissus latifolia, Pterocarpus marsupium,

Terminalia alata, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Madhuca longifolia, Soymida febrifuga, Buchanania lanzan, Diospyros melanoxylon etc, mixed with smaller trees of evergreen species and ground cover with profuse growth along the streams. Such type are predominanty made up of Diospyros sylvatica, Syzigium cuminii,  Mangifera indica,Schleichera oleosa, Litsea chinensis, L. chinensis, L. polyantha, Ficus asperima etc., which grow luxuriantly reaching to more than 15-20 m height mixed with smaller trees and scrubs. The respective village wise area occupied   under this category is shown in table 2, 3 and 4. Spatial extent is shown in Fig. 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2, Plate 3 and 7.

9.3.2 Degraded Forest   
Notified forests, such as Reserved Forest, Protected Forest, etc which has been depleted either due to human interference or natural calamities are considered as degraded forests.  Land, as notified under the Forest Act and those lands with various types of forest cover, in which vegetative cover is less than 20 % are classified as degraded land. These are noticeable in all parts of the study area.These lands are generally confined to the fringe areas of notified forest areas.  Such lands appear in dark gray to light red tone during the maximum green period.  The tonal variations are subject to change with the foliage cover and the season of data acquisition. Felling of trees for fuel purposes, timber, fiber and other forest produce due to increase in population are other reasons for depletion of forest. The respective village wise area occupied   under this category is shown in table 2, 3 and 4. Spatial extent is shown in Fig. 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2, Plate 6.


9.4 Wasteland:  
Wasteland is described as degraded lands which can be brought   under vegetative cover with reasonable effort and which is currently under utilized and/or deteriorating due to lack of   appropriate water and soil management   on account of   natural causes. The following classes of wasteland classes have been identified in the study area.

  • Land with scrub and Land without scrub
  • Scrubland along streams/field bunds
  • Barren rocky/Stony waste
  • Degraded Plantation within cashew
    • Land with or without scrub:

It is characterized by undulating landscape and represents the penultimate stage of pediplanation. It is made up of convex interfluves, which are interspersed with concave in-filled lowlands, which join to form a dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage network. This category appears on satellite imagery in varying sizes with irregular shapes and are usually associated with slopes, isolated hills, foot slopes etc.  These are the lands with soils that are too shallow, skeletal, or chemically degraded lands with moderate to steep slopes and are mostly covered with or without scrubs of different densities and varying height.  Maximum concentration of scrub area is mainly found in the hills/ upland areas. These areas are mainly observed on rock outcrop region; Acacia species and other shrubs are the vegetation main types vegetation observed in these areas.

9.4.2 Scrubland along streams/ field bunds/ Road:
This category is noticed along the streams, nalas, road side, field bunds and settlements. Toddy palm is the dominant species noticed along the field bunds. Plate 2. The important other species seen under this category  are Azadirachta indica, Ficus benghalensis, F. religiosa, Albizia lebbeck, Tamarindus indica, Polyalthia longifolia, Mimusops elengi, Cassia fistula, Ailanthus excelsa, Delonix regia, Strychnos nux-vomica, Pithecellobium dulce,Millingtonia hortensis, Kigelia pinnata, Terminalia tomentosa, T. chebula, Mangifera indica etc.
9.4.3   Barren rocky/ Stony waste: 
Exposed rocks sheet rocks, stony pavements, characterize these lands. In the study area it is seen as dispersed patches on hills/ hill slopes plateau and eroded plains Exposed    rock    outcrop   devoid of   soil cover and vegetation are grouped under this category. It is seen in the southern part of the watershed.   The bare rock mass is surmounted and surrounded by blocks and boulders.

The rock outcrops are scattered all over the village in association with inselberg tor complex. Because   of the size, much small units could not be mapped. The   exposed   rock outcrops are   mostly spheroid    in shape, which are found to occur either in clusters or in isolation. These have been developed in two stages. Differential   sub-surface   weathering   was followed by differential erosion.

9.4.4.  Degraded Plantations with scrub 
The category identified includes the existing underutilized plantation areas which are not optimally used and is deteriorating due to lack of lack land and water management/ social and economic problems. These are mostly cashew dominated and noticed in T Burugubanda village. The area has the potential to bring back to productive horticultural use.

9.4.5 Salt-affected land
Areas of impounded with salt encrustations are noticed in Korumilli village south east of China Korumilli.

9.5 Water bodies
Areas of impounded water with/without regulated flow can be put under water bodies.  It includes man made as well as natural water sites.  Kotwalcheruvu and Mankal   cheruvu   are the main tanks here. Pullandari vagu and several small channels are also flowing over this region. The water supply to these tanks is dependent on precipitation as a major source. Tanks of varying sizes are seen scattered in the entire watershed area. The respective village wise area occupied   under this category is shown in table 2, 3 and 4. Spatial extent is shown in Fig. 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2, Plate 6.

10.0 Soils
Soils of the study area vary from moderate deep to deep and are in acidic in nature. They are very rich in organic matter and are dark grayish brown to dark red in colour. The soils are skeletal in nature and vary from silty clay loam to clay loam. Soils are highly fertile due to high organic matter content.  Red soils, black, mixed red and black soils and alluvial soils found to occur in the study area.

    1. Observations

The soils of Bhimavaram, Burugubanda and Korumilli villages of Rampchodavaram Mandal, East Godavari district were characterized, classified and mapped at phase level at 1:10,000 scales. The soil temperature regime of the area is hyperthermic, and soil moisture regime is Ustic. Further, the soil of the area has mixed mineralogy. In the present study, the soils of the area have been categorized into four major phases viz. erosion, surface texture, stoniness and slope.   In the description of each soil series and morphological features, the USDA soil classification has been given in annexure-1.

10.1.1 Bhimavaram village 
The satellite data and soil map of Bhimavaram village are depicted in Fig-2 a, b respectively. The extended legend of soils occurring in this village is presented in Table 1. It indicates that the major physiographic units occurring in this village are, hill side slopes, foot slopes, undulating pediplain and intermontane valleys.

i  Loddipalem series 
The soils occurring on hill side slope belong to series Loddipalem classified as Loamy skeletal Typic Ustorthents. These soils are very shallow, loamy skeletal in texture, strongly stony with severe erosion and are developed on moderately slopping (8-15 %) hill side slope having moderately dense vegetation. 
ii  Bandapalli series
The soils of foot slopes belong to series Bandapalli classified as Fine loamy Typic Haplustepts. These soils are very deep, sandy clay loam in texture, moderately stony with moderate erosion and are developed on gently sloping (3-8%) foot slopes having sparse vegetation.

iii  Burugubanda Series
The soils of undulating pediplain belong to two series viz., Burugubanda Series and Bhimavaram series.  The Burugubanda series is classified as Fine loamy Typic Rhodustalfs. These soils deep, sandy clay in texture, strongly stony with moderate erosion and are developed on gently slopping undulating pediplain with scrub.  
The soils Bhimavaram series belongs to Loamy skeletal Typic Rhodustalfs. The soils are deep (75cm), sandy loam in texture, strongly stony and severely eroded and are developed on moderately sloping (8-15%) undulating pediplain without scrub.

iv  Kalva series
The intermontane valley has soils belonging to series Kalva classified as Fine Typic Haplustepts. These soils are moderately deep, clay loam in texture, moderately stony with slight erosion and are developed on gently slopping valley.

In general the soils of Bhimavaram village are acidic in nature with pH ranging from 5.1 to 6.1 and rich in organic carbon. The dominant series in this village is Bhimavarm with an area of 33.33 ha followed by Bandapalli (23.32ha), Kalva (23ha), Loddipalem (22.3ha) and Burugubanda (18.7ha).

The soils of Bhimavaram village were categorized into USDA land capability classes and subclasses as per their limitations. The major land capability sub classes occurring in this village are IIIs (23 ha), IVes (52 ha) and VIes (45.6 ha). It indicates that, the land suitable for cultivation in this village is very limited and confined to intermountain valley having IIIes subclass.

10.1.2 Burugubanda village 
The satellite data and soil map of Burugubanda village are depicted in Fig-3 a, b respectively. The extended legend of soils occurring in this village is presented in Table 2. It indicates that the major physiographic units occurring in this village are, hill side slopes, foot slopes, undulating pediplain, intermontane valleys and buried pediplain. The major soils series encountered in this village are Loddipalem, Bandapalli, Burugubanda, Jagametla, Kalva and Mallpadu. The description of these soils series are given in 5.1 section except for Jagametla and Mallpadu.

i  Jagametla series
The soils of Jagametla series belong to Coarse loamy Typic Rhodustalfs occurring on undulating pediplain. These soils deep, sandy loam in texture, slightly stony with moderate erosion and are developed on gently slopping undulating pediplain without scrub. 

ii  Mulapadu series
The soils of Mallpadu series belong to Fine loamy Typic Haplustalfs occurring on buried pediplain. These soils deep, sandy loam in texture with moderate erosion and are developed on gently slopping buried pediplain. 

The soils of Burugubanda village are acidic in nature with pH ranging from 5.2 to 6.6 and rich in organic carbon. The dominant series in this village is Burugubanda with an area of 104 ha fallowed by  Kalva (83ha), Jagametla ( 71 ha),  Loddipalem (22.3ha), Mallpadu (35 ha) and Bandapalli (13 ha).

The soils of Burugubanda village were categorized into USDA land capability classes and subclasses as per their limitations. The major land capability sub classes occurring in this village are IIIs (154 ha), IIIes (35 ha), IVes (104.3 ha) and Ves (60.7 ha). It indicates that, the land suitable for cultivation in this village is substantial.

10.1.3 Korumilli village 
The satellite data and soil map of Korumilli village are depicted in Fig-4 a, b respectively. The extended legend of soils occurring in this village is presented in Table 4. It indicates that the major physiographic units occurring in this village are, hill side slopes, foot slopes, undulating pediplain, and intermontane valleys. The major soils series encountered in this village are Loddipalem, Bandapalli, Burugubanda, Jagametla, and Kalva. The description of these soils series is given in previous sections 5.1 and 5.2.

In general the soils of Korumilli village are acidic in nature with pH ranging from 5.2 to 6.7 and rich in organic carbon. The dominant series in this village is Jagametla with an area of 89 ha fallowed by Burugubanda (79.7 ha), Kalva (54 ha), Bandapalli (50 ha) and Loddipalem (40 ha).

The soils of village were categorized into USDA land capability classes and subclasses as per their limitations. The major land capability sub classes occurring in this village are IIIs (143 ha), IVes (79 ha) and VIes (90 ha).

10.2 Land degradation
Various processes of land degradation are prevailing in the study areas. The major process, which contributes mainly to land degradation, is water erosion. The second one is deforestation, which leads to vegetation degradation of micro-flora and fauna.

10.2.1 Bhimavaram village
The major land degradation problem in Bhimavaram village is soil erosion, because of steep slope, poor vegetation cover and high rainfall. As per the degree of severity three water erosion classes were found to occur in this village viz., slight (23 ha), moderate (42 ha) and severe (55.6 ha). This shows that severely eroded area is dominant in the village followed by moderate and slight eroded area.

10.2.2 Burugubanda village 
In Burugubanda village, the major land degradation problem is also soil erosion. As per the degree of severity two major water erosion classes were found to occur in this village viz., moderate (206 ha) and severe (47ha). This shows that moderately eroded area is dominant in the village followed by severely eroded area.

10.2.3 Korumilli village
Soil erosion is also the dominant land degradation process in  Korumilli village. Three soil erosion classes are encountered in this village viz., slight (54ha), moderate (219.57 ha) and severe (40.0 ha). Moderately eroded area is dominant in the village followed by slightly and severely eroded area.

The conservation measures namely; check dams, field bunds across the slope, farm ponds, contour trenches, gabian structures and afforestation programmes are recommended to control soils erosion problems.

10.3    Description of Soil Series

Loddipalem Series: Soils are very shallow, well-drained, gravelly sandy loam and stony (ST3).  The slope varies from 8-15% and soils are moderately eroded. The soils are classified as Loamy skeletal, mixed,hypertermic, Typic Ustorthents.

Bandapalli Series: Soils are well drained, moderately deep to very deep, dark reddish brown with varying texture from sandy loam to sandy clay loam, moderately eroded with sparse vegetation covered. The soils are classified as Fine Loamy,mixed,hypertermic,Typic Haplustspts.

Burugubanda series:  Soils are moderately deep and moderately well drained formed on very gently sloping land with moderate erosion. The soil are classified as Fine loamy, mixed,hypertermic, Typic Rhodustalfs

Jagametlapalem series consists of deep to very deep, with dark yellowish brown in color and well drained. The texture ranges from loamy sandy to sandy clay loam. The soil is encountered in this unit as coarse loamy Typic Rhodustalfs

Mulapadu series: Soils are very deep and have texture of sandy loamy in A-horizon and silty clay loam in   B-horizon. Soils are of dark brown to dark red in color and moderately well drained with slope of 3-8%. Soils are classified as Fine- Loamy, mixed, hypertermic, Typic Haplustalfs.

Kalva series is very deep and have texture of sandy loamy in A-horizon and silty clay in   B-horizon. Soils are of dark brown to dark red in colour and moderately well drained with slope of 3-8%. Soils encountered in this unit as Fine (calcareouc) Typic Haplustepts.

10.4 Conclusions
The study indicates that the high-resolution satellite data (LISS-IV) can be used for deriving information on soil variability on village level at 1:10000 scale. Soils can be classified at phase level. Field boundaries can be easily delineated with survey numbers. The information thus generated can be helpful to farmers in taking more informed decision in managing their soils and crops. Further, land and water resources action plans can also be generated at micro-watershed level.


The foregoing discussions on resource evaluation shows that land and water resources development can be achieved more effectively on village/watershed basis.  Resources being interdependent, any alteration in the treatment of a single resource base within the area has a direct impact on the other.  Hence, there should be the fullest development of the basic resources of land and water, flora and fauna and above all the people.  Transformation of agricultural land is necessary to fully exploit its potential to meet the growing demand for food and fodder by adopting appropriate land and water management practices on a sustainable basis.  Threats on ecological disruption may occur if proper steps are not taken imminently.

In the study area marginal lands could be profitably put to alternate land use systems like tree farming or pastoral use.  Trees and scrubs contribute substantially for maintenance of a healthy balance in the ecosystem, besides meeting the basic human and live stocks requirements.

The modern approach, therefore, calls for a system which can meet multiple requirements of the dry land farmers besides maintaining soil health.  Research conducted by dry land institute has proved that, vast scope exist for increasing the crop production is dry land areas  by adopting appropriate soil and water management practices.  The various alternate land use system that could be implemented in the area are discussed below.

  • Growing of paddy in Kharif and pulses in Rabi season.
  • Single crop to double crop
  • Growing of suitable trees species along bunds in double crop areas
  • Agro – horticulture
  • Silvi Pasture
  • Water Harvesting Structures / Mesquite Plantations
  • Plantation (Citrus) / Shallow rooted crops
  • Forest Gap Filling (within RF)
  • Energy Plantations
  • Dense scrub forest / Forest plantations / Agricultural plantations (No Action).

The area soil under description mostly corresponding to the valley fills.  The soils are fine loamy in texture and contain alternate layers of fine and course material.  Since the lands are marked in the lower undulating pediplain, they are deep with moderate drainage.  The water table in the area is very high during Kharif season, because of its close proximity to streams.  The area is highly suitable for growing paddy during Kharif season and with provision of sufficient irrigation facilities during Rabi season.

The soil under this unit corresponds to the fine loamyTypic Rhodustalfs the area is suitable for raising two crops if irrigation facility is provided.  Site for construction of check dams have been identified (Plate-5).  Careful selection of crop types should be given due importance in accordance with land and water management techniques.  The area can be devoted for growing crops like maize, ragi, red gram, bajra, vegetable etc.

The field bunds can be utilized for growing suitable tree species.  During ground truth visits it was observed that most of the farmers have common field bunds.  Mutual understanding among the villagers, to grow a variety of favorable tree species along field bunds is essential to stabilize the bunds and optimum utilization of land.

Plantation of multipurpose fast growing trees has a bearing on the rural economy as a source of fuel, fodder and manure.  It also helps in regularizing the water cycle besides preserving the eco system.

The following are few points which need to be kept in mind for the selection of tree species.

  • The trees which are drought resistant and require minimum maintenance should be given first preference.
  • The tree should act as wind breaks to avoid occasional incidental crop damage.
  • The selection species should provide forage for cattle.
  • Drought tolerant trees, firewood, timber, fruit, pulp or oil yielding species are advisable because of their high economic value. 

In dry land areas where regular annual crop production is uncertain, fruit trees, besides augmenting normal source of income, increase the food value, as per the dietary recommendation.  The agro horticultural system is a form of agro forestry where the tree component is a fruit tree.  Important dry land fruit trees suitable for integrating with the existing land use system are guava (Psidium guajava), custard apple (Annona Squvamosa), Pomegranate (Punica Granatum), Ber (Zizyphus Mauritiana), and amla (Emblila officinalis).

The area identified in the study region corresponds to lower and upper pediment. The general slope of the area range between 3-8% presently the area is either under cropland or scrubland.  The soils are subjected to moderate erosion.

The trees should be planted in contour furrows as this will ensure more opportunity for percolation of rain water.  Further this will help in insitu moisture conservation.  In addition dugouts/ field ponds in the plots to collect run-off water, and the same can be utilized in a dry period.  The inter-tree spacing can be used for taking up minor millets and pulses. 

In the silvi-pasture system, a tree species (Silviculture component) and a pasture species (Pastoral component) are grown together in a systematic way so that hey become complementary to each other.  In the study area soils corresponding to loamy skeletal, non-calcareous, typic Haplustalfs  can be devoted for silvi pasture development.  The soils are skeletal in nature and are developed on undulating terrain.  The slope varies between 3-5%  with moderate erosion .The land which are under utilized (wasteland) or and the productivity of the land is low due to rolling topography, skeletal, soils and presence of rock material, offer wide scope for developing into fuel/fodder production

Clayey as well as gravelly clayey soils have been suggested for the plantation of sweet lime, and growing up shallow rooted crops.  Part of single Kharif fallow and upland with / without scrub mainly falls under the present alternate land use system.  Gentle to moderate gradient of these terrains provide less soil erosion problems comparable to other hilly lands.  Being slightly calcareous in nature and alkaline in reaction, the recommended area is potential site for good nutrient and water holding capacity and substantially production can be increased with adequate irrigation facility.

The area is made up of mainly hills and having shallow soil.  Since this is a hilly area, soil and water conservation measures are to be adopted.

Forest gap filling in this zone not only will decrease the problem of soil erosion but also increase the biomass volume, this  exhibit a direct influence on micro

climate, thereby increasing ground water potential as this being the recharge zone of the watershed area.  Besides the forest gap filling with suitable species as this being the recharge zone, mechanical structures have to be constructed for insitu water conservation besides to reduce the velocity of run off, site disposal system with silt traps to be provided for the disposal of excess run off.

Such techniques if adopted will supply moisture to forestry plants during the initial growing period.


Trees and woods plantations play major role in reducing the run off, checking soil and restoring ecological balance.  Besides providing the fuel wood for local use.  This will also generate employment to number of landless laborers which would be largely of continuing nature.  The unit identified under this class is located in hilly portions and some isolated hills close to the villages.



CRUSADE ( 1996) : Land Use Planning through land evaluation : a study on (part of) Yellimineti Vagu and Pedda Vagu Waterdhsedd for Kandukur, Dabliguda, Mucherla, Sarlapalli and Mirkhanpet villages, Kandukur Mandal, Ranga Reddy District, Andhra Pradesh, pp 1-86.
DOS / KSRSTUC (1990): Ring road alignment in three specific stretches around Bangalore City - A remote sensing based solution. 
Manoj Raj Saxena & V. Vidyanath (1988) : Geomorphic Studies in Dindi Reservoir Basin for Land Use Planning : Andhra Pradesh, pp 378-396 published in Development of India’s Resource Base, Patterns, Problems and Prospects, edited by V. Vidyanath and R. Ram Mohan Rao.
Manoj Raj Saxena et al (1996) : Ground water and Soil Resource Components for Watershed Management – A Remote Sensing Reconnaissance of Mucherla Village in Kandukur Mandal, Ranga Reddy District, Andhra Pradesh published in Journal of the Indian Academy of Geoscience, Vol.39, No.2, 1996, pp 79-84..
NRSA (1991): Land use/land cover assessment of Bombay- Manmad petroleum pipeline corridor. 
NRSA (1991): Land use/land cover assessment of Konkan railway corridor in the West Coast. 
NRSA (1991): Manual of nationwide land use/land cover mapping using satellite imagery. 
NRSA (1992): Land use/land cover assessment of Visakhapatnam- Vijayawada petroleum pipeline corridor. 
NRSA (1992): Salinity and alkalinity assessment along the Indira Gandhi Canal Corridor in Rajasthan.
NRSA (1993): Land use/land cover assessment for tourism development - Patnitop Development Area, Jammu and Kashmir
NRSA (1994): Land use/land cover assessment of Haldia-Barauni petroleum pipeline corridor. 
NRSA (1995): Land use/land cover assessment for Oman - India (Onshore) gas pipeline corridor.
NRSA (1996): Land use/land cover assessment of Patna and environs using remote sensing techniques.
NRSA (1998): Land use / land cover assessment study around the POL Jetty site for M/s. BPCL, Mumbai using remote sensing techniques. 
NRSA (1999): Land use / land cover assessment study of Dahej - Hajira gas pipeline corridor using remote sensing techniques for M/s IPCL, New Delhi
NRSA (2000): Land use / Land cover assessment along the Naphtha / BTX pipeline corridor between Thane-JNPT, New Mumbai using Remote Sensing Techniques for M/s. National Organic Chemical Industries Limited (NOCIL).
NRSA (2000): Land use / land cover assessment study of Tatipaka - Kondapalle gas pipeline corridor using remote sensing techniques for M/s Gas Authority of India Limited. 
NRSA (2002): Land use / land cover assessment study for HBJ Pipe line Upgradation project (Phase-III) of GAIL using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques.
NRSA (2002): Land Use/ Land Cover Study for REIA of GAIL’s Mangalore – Coimbatore proposed LPG Pipeline Project using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques.
NWDB (1991): Description and classification of wastelands. National Wastelands Development Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
USDA (2003), Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Soil Survey Division,U.S Department of Agriculture.





W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


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