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AN ESSENTIAL GUIDE ON THE UTILIZATION OF THE GODAVARI WATERS AND RESOURCES


 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.


"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


  

The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar


SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002

 


RECONSTRUCTING A HISTORY OF LAND,

DISPOSSESSION OF ADIVASI LAND IN THE WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT OF A.P.

Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,

Hyderabad

Read full article


 

proceedings of the chief conservator of forests 

Proceeding No. 321. Press. 15th July 1932. 

CHENCHUS -  Settlement right - Subsequent chamber - Orders - Passed.

___________________________________________________________________________ 

R.O. RICHMOND ? REG., C.I.P. I.F.S ?,

Chief Conservator of forets.                                       

Read :- The following paper -- 

I . G.O.No. 119 Revenue dated 17th February 1891, notifying the sirvel block : as a  reserved Forest. 

II. G.O.No. 315 Revenue dated 14th April, 1891, notifying the Nandyal block as a  reserved  Forest.

 III. G.O.No. 351, Revenue dated 5th , 21st  April 1891, notifying the Nandikotkur  blocks a reserved Forest.

 IV. G.O.No. 221, Revenue  dated 5th March, 1892, notifying the  Markapur block as a reserved Forest .

 V.  G.O.No. 197, Revenue, dated 1st March, 1892, notifying the Cumbumblock as a  Reserved Forests.

 VI. G.O.No. 657, Revenue, dated 27th September 1899, notifying the Guvvalakuntla A, B and Chlodks as a reserved Forest.

 VII.G.O.No. 214, Revenue ,dated 15th March, 1901, notifying the Velgodo block as a reserved  forest.

 VIII.Letter from N.R.Ry. A.V.SUNDARAN AVARGAL, W.A.Special Chenchu Forest Officer, Kurnool to the Chief conservator of forests  ( through the conservator of forests, Second oirele, Bellary, and the Collector, Kurnool ).

 ( REFERENCE -  Chief conservator a No. 7611 /6-2/28-5, dated 6th April 1929, posting a  gazetted Officer for the chenchu enquiry and chief conservator,          No.2274/1929, dated 12th April 1929 -- Enquiry regarding rights ).

 1.   I  beg to submit here with my report an the question  of chenchu rights in two parts.  Part I contains the statistics and other information gathered by no during the course of my enquiry and though all the information contained there in maynot directly concern the subject under enquiry, I have added then to this reports as I considered that they may be usefully recorded as part of my report part II contains my ro osala regarding the chenchu rights.

 2. My enquiry was concerned C with the rights relating to dwellingsites, cultivation and gerden lands allowed as enclosure free reservation of settlement, and with their relating to free grassing allowed at settlement.

 3. Rights relating to dwelling sites, cultivation and garden lands, a very large number of the dwelling sites cultivation’s and garden lands ( vide append IX VI ) allowed at settlements unreserved enclosures have been afforestthese enclosures. But this is not possible for the reasons detail in paragraphs 52,52 and 54 of my report.

 4. The only alternative will be to extinghiah these rights by making use of the right of precipitin vested in Government at the time of settlement. This procedure may not define the status of these enclosures.  But will make it impossible.


 

 II. PROCESS OF THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS 321, PRESS, 15TH JULY,1932.

 For the Chenchus to clear reserved forest as they like for putting up their huts, for cultivation for other purposes, on the place that the sites nobly cleared were the once allowed to then at settlement for the purpose. There can be no objection to such a declaration as the sites now referred to have been definitely and nor and the chench of there  gudns who have now settled at other places are down allowed sufficient lad for all their purposes.  Such as declaration has to be made by the Governor in council and draft notification for the proposal is appended.

 4. Certain sites allowed as enclosure at settlement ( Vide paragraph 59 of my report ) are now under a occupation by Chenchus and these will be continued as unreserved enclosures.

 5. Certain site allowed as unreserved enclosures at settlement from part of the areas now proposed to be set apart for the purpose of the Chenchus of the afferent gudens. These proposed blockade to be demarated and set apart for these Chenchus but will for part of the reserve and will be loused to the Chenchus year after year. The shall enclosures chick were allowed as unreserves at settlement and which from part or these proposed blocks will continues as but will be leased along with the rest of the b is now set apart for the purposes of the Chenchus, and the reasonal for providing a large area for the chenches and are elaborated is inparagraphs 60 to 65 of my report. The unreserve enclosures allowed at settlement

 6. RIGHTS RELATING TO FREE GRAZING :-  As a result of the frequent shifting of their gudems by the Chenchus, the number of cattle and gats now would by the Chenchus, of the different gudems varins considerably from the number of actually allowed at settlement for the different gudems this rest on in dental on art III , art II of  my allowed at settlement is 2,590 and 5,205 respectively and the numbers now found are respectively, 1.741 and 3,126. The force grassing proposed to be allowed to the different guidencies given in Appendix III. The total number of cattle and goats for which free grasing is now proposed to be given cones to 5,572 and 2,390 respectively.

            In the gaso of cattle it is now proposed to increase the number allowed at settlement by 2982 consistently with the proposal to allow the Chenchus large plota for their cultivation with a view to provide the reduation in number of goats allowed at settlement from 5205 to 2330.

            7. The proposals regarding free gracing or settle donot involve any rediction in the number of eattle allowed for the different gudens at settlement export in the case of five gudens (Vide paragraphs 84 and 85 ) in which a reducation is involved to the except of 237.

            8. This reduction is explained inparagraph 85.  This reduction has to be continued by the Governor  Council, and a draft notification is appended for the purpose.

            9. In the case of gots it is now proposed to decrease the total number allowed at settlement by 2815.  This reduction is a curtailment of the rights allowed to the Chenchus in this respect at settlement and rules the ganotion of his exolellency the Governor incoundil.  A draft notification for the purpose is appended.

            10.  This reduction in the total number of goats allowed at settlement involves reduction is the  number of gots no actually found in the  gudens only in the case of seven gudens (Please vide column 10 of Appendix III ) to a total extent of 736.  In seveb gydebs there us us erase  over the number.  Process of the CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS, 321 PRESS 15TH 1932** allowed at settlement by 736 and it is now proposed to limit the number of goats in these gudens to the number of goats now actually found are allowed free grassing.  This large decrease in the  number of goats in due to the fact that a number of  sites originally allowed at settlement have been definitely abandoned (please vide Appendix VI ), and  the chendhus there of lavemigrated to controls like Bairlutyand peck where plenty of departmental works are available through about the year and  consequently the Chenchus has does lot filth necessity for spats.

             11.  The other rights allowed at settlement will not be disturbed.  They are dealt  with in Chapter XIV, part II of my report.

             12.  Chapter, part II of my report deals with the present non-Chenchus settlements inside reserves.


 

 REPORT

PART I

CHAPTER - I

 1. RERLY HISTORY

             The earliest information that we have about the Chenchus is given by freshets who, as osted in the Kurnool District of Mannual, referred to the ( 1694 A.D.) as melesting noone and putting novalueon gold and silver.  In his memorandum about the hills called Nallamala which has published in the fort ST.George Gazotte of December 10, 1852 as stated in Mr.word a working pean, B.P. for Npo.218 dated 9th November of 1907.  Mr.Russell describes the Chenchus as chenchivars as tribe of savages, very few in bumper, living as on gemde killed withdraws, and c of diffeerent kinds.

             2.  Their population in 1882-83 was stated to be 2,000 like most bill tribes of an aboriginalcharactor.  The Chenchus were very wild in the  nature, highly suspoitious,  very indolent and fully misehier as and a orninall include.  Is the olden days they used agns tpermit and property,  by collection of blackmail, and on forest gene and roots with the introduction for some form or tother of control of  tase forest by Government, the Chenchus were amont the control to find the irprivilegs enjoyed logallyor illegally being slowly ourtailod.  As a resit of this practically for the commencement of forest administration  in the Nallamalayas, the Chenchus were found to be the worst engnies of the administration.  Notonly were they looting the forest but they were also very largely responsibnle for the disastious forest fires for which the Nallamala have been so famous as aearly as 1860.  Lient T.Decklay acting District engineer of Kurnool stated the question of reclaning the Chenchus law from vagubonding to agricultural pareuite  in 1883-84 proposals were made for the first time to make use of the made for the first time to make use of the Chenchus for departmental works suchas building roads and line elaring. 

 The right of preoption vested with the Government in the matter of the rights allowed to the Chenchus  at the time of settlement, was utilised inresfect of minor forest produces and the soeer as prevented form getting director accesse to the Chenchus in the matter of the collection of  cheseproduct.  The products were collected by the department.  

     The  a polloy of indilgno was adopted.  In 1897-98 it was prepared to abnb lead  collection of minor forest produce in the Nallamala and in 1992-93 fire protection was entrusted to the Chenchus and in the same year permission was also granted to the Chenchus of were to be safe guarded from fire but this rolioy proved again a failure and the problem of  ucesefulilrapote action was become day by day more and more difficult on a account of the aparhy and mischious of the Chenchus.

 4.  PROCES. OF THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF 321 PHASE 15Th1932.

2.  THE PLANTATION PERIOD 1905 - 17 

3.  With a view to bring the Chenchus under contsd by providing them with sufficient food.  It was decided to start plantation  soon a largeadale as it was working kid and the operations were continued in 1905 and were continued till 1917.  The Chenchus population the time of the commencement of the plantation operatios was estimated at 4,000 (please vide Mr.A.WLushigugtonas enopresecmeon Mr.Wood working plan  page 54, of B.F. No.28  218  dated 9th  November 1907) and the object of the plantation operations was to provide food for all this number, as it fire were as heavy as ever.  In all amount of 3.11  306 was apart in the West Division ever a period food for the this as it was found that heavy as ever.  In all ever a period of ten years, i.e. Rs.2,594 was spent per month in an average.  In the For East Division Rs.33,045-9-0 was spent if six years i.e. Rs.459 permonth in an evarage.  Thus with total population of 4,000 the monthly evarage income per head was A813-3 taking the figures for pupulation given by Mr.Sunders is his Chenchus administration report for 1916 (No.2409 revenue (Special) duty i.e 25 December 1919644 1.595 women and children or total of 2,239 for Kurnool Division.  512 male and 1,363 women and children or a total or 1,375 for the Kurnool Division and 60m and 141 females and children or a total of 201 for the Kornol So the Division, the average monthly income.

             Work to Rs.5-1-0 per male adult for the West Division and Rs. 1-6-0 per head of total population for the West Divison,  As ll-5 pere adult male and A3-3 per head of total population for the West Division.  And Rs.2.8 - Oper adult male and A 11-4 per head of total population for the whole Kurnool district.

             4. From Mr.Hood a report (B.P.No.48 dated 25th April 1917) it is seen that 44 for men were committed against propority during the year 1912,19  ,  1913 and 1914 or in an average 15 crimes per year. 

            3 Mr.Hood’s Enquiry. 

            5.Various representations were recived from the Police the Forest Department and the villagers close to Chenchus gudem in 1914 by the Collector, Kurnool, about Chenchus crimes, and as a result Mr.Hood was posted as special officer to devide    scheme for the control of chunchus.  He was on this duty during 1915.  The Chief NGO commendations of this Officer were that sufficient work able be provided by the Forest Department for the Chenchus, that the gudem deputy to rangers should be better classmen, that a special officer should be apointed to lookafter the Chenchus partionlarly to look after the addition of their children, to decrease the number of liquor shop available for the Chenchus for the Chenchus, and to indues the Chenchus to take up agriculture by the appointment of a special officer for the purpose As a result of this enquiry Mr.Saundor  was appointed as special officer for the Chenchus for two years in official memorandum No.2617-E/15-11, Revenue dated 8th December 1916 and his pay was borne by the forest and police Departments in equal shares.  His duties were to suporvise the conduct of the Chenchus and to devisemans for the improvement of their condition.  He should arrange suitably mesurs for their employment in communication with the Distric Forest Officer.   He should exercise his influence in order to indivice them to bring their children under instruction, to rern in and prevent forest fire to stop decoity and to acure the arrest of members of their  community who have committed grave crimes.  Besides the appointment of the special officer.  A five year programme of works by the Forest Department was drava up for providing work for the Chenchus. 

             4.Mr.Saunder’s time 1917-18 and 1918-19.

            `6. In his administration report for 1918-19 Mr.seunders suggested the a tutioning of small police forest at Atmakur, the application of the Criminal Tribes Act to the forest among the Chenchus criminals.  The giving of magisterial powers with in the Nallamala to the special Chenchus officer and the imporvement of communications with a view to the opening up of the Forest areas and to provide work for the Chenchus. 

            7. From Mr.saunder, SChenchus administration Report for 1918-19 (No.2409 (special), dated 23rd December 1919) it is seen that 305 working Chenchus in the West Division earned during the year. Rs.16,158-12-11 from all sources of income from the Forest Departmental operations and from Agricultue i.e. the monthly income was Rs.4-7 operable/bodied adult male.  Taking the populatation for the Sest Division given in the same report i.e.512 males 1,363 women and children or a total of 1,875, the average monthly income per adult male and per head of total population works to Rs.2-100 and Rs.11-6 respectively. 

            8. During the year 62 crimes were reported against the Chenchus. 

            9. The plantations started in 1905 were given up from 1918, after planting under irrigation some 1,200 acres at a cost of 4 1/2 lakhe of rupees on account of shortage of water.  In addition to the shortage of work, the Chenchus suffered very much from the advence conditions which affected the whole of the district during the latter part of 1918.  The South-West monsoon failed, a virulent type of influences, chlora and small per pene trated the Nallamalas.  The result was that a both the begining of 1919 the Chenchus began to get more and more out of control, crime increased abnormally during the calonder year 1919.  With a view to bring the Chenchus again under  control by providing the with sufficient work emergency couples were started by the department in 1919. And steps the exploitation of bamboos.  Definite proposals for a five yea  programme of works involving an expenditure of Rs.2,000,650 on communication were taken up by the Forest Department.  With the departure of Mr.Saunderm the District Forest Officer Kurnool West became the Special Chenchus Officer for the whole Kurnool District, and was assisted by saistant Chenchus officer, special Sub-assistant surgen and an educational supervisor. 

5.Mr.Pitt’s Special Duty.           

            10.       In Government Memorandum No.1244-43 Home (Judicial), dated 19th May, 1920, Mr.Pitt was appointed special officer to meet the special situation areased by the Heavy crimes in the year 1919-20 made by the chenchues.  The result of Mr.Pitt’s special duty was that all was quiet in the Nallamala is by the end of December 1920.


 

 CHAPTER-II

6.Mr.Moir’s Report and After

             11. With a view to take effective steps to devise a scheme to real the Chenchus, and to prevent the relapsing into crime, a special investigation was made by Mr.T.E.Moir as Labour Commissioner in 1921 and a Joint discussion was held on the subject by the Labour Commissioner the Chief  conservator of Forests and the Collector of Kurnool.  As a result of these investigation, the Government in the Development Department proceedings press No.1634, dated 6th December 1922, came to the following conclusions.

             1.That continued efforts should be

            2.That until more settled habits are developed among the Chenchu the Forest Department should take up the responsibility of providing the Chenchus regular and suitable employment, even at a loss, if necessary to the Department.

             3.That they should be kept under proper control.

             12.As it was considered that it was difficult for the District Forest Officer, Kurnool West, to best to sufficient attention on the Chenchus in the other to divisions, orders were issued in the above proceedings declaring each District Forest Officer as the Chenchus Officer for the division in his charge working under the Collector as the Co-ordinating authority and the Special Assistant Chenchus Officer.  Sub-Assistant the collector in whatever par of the Chenchu area in which the Collector may reused their services.  It was also ordered that the entire charges connected with the Chenchu operations should be provided in the Forest budget.  The Government also decided.

 1. To apply the provisions of the Criminal Tribal Act to the Chenchus

2. To arm a certain number of forest guards. 

3. To empower the District  Forest Officer to issue warrants of arrest within their devision.

4.To allow the Special Chenchu Officer to continue to exercise his magisterial powers over the Chenchus.

 PROCCS. OF THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS, 321, PRESS.15TH JULY 1932

7.THE PERIOD FROM 1922 TO 1927-28

 13.       The earnings of the Chenchus from the Forest departmental operations during the period 1922-23 to 1927-28 are given below:- 

 

 

 

 

year

Kurnool west

Kurnool East

Total

Remarks

1922-23

25,334

             ---

            ---

---

1923-24

20,777

             ---

            ---

---

1924-25

23,315

 6,511

29,826

---

1925-26

17,226

 8,191

25,417

---

1926-27

27,204

10,623

37,827

---

1927-28

54,733

  9,416

64,149

---

Total:

     1,68,589 

34,741

  1,57,219

 

Average:

        28,098

 8,685

     39,350

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            Taking the 1921 Census figures for the total Chenchu populations is., 5, 273 (This figures includes the non-Chenchu population in the this villages on the Nallamalas) the average monthly income per head of total pupulation for this period comes to about to 10 annals:-

14.The Chenchu crimes during the period are given below:

 

 

 

 

Year

Number of Crimes

Number of persons involved

 

1923-24

8

15

1924-25

11

55

1925-26

4

10

1926-27

40

22

1927-28

26

69

 

 

 

 

 

            15. Till 1925, the emergency coupes continued.  The re after the question of systematic working of the Nallamala forest in the West Division was taken up by M.R. Ry.Rao Sahib K.R.Venkatramana Ayyar, who was then District Forest Officer, West Kurnool, and a number of bamboo and other coupes were opened and the lease system of working the coupes was  started from the year 1926-27; and this resulted in considerable increase in the earnings of the Chenchus population in the West Division as disclosed in my present enquiry, i.e.534 adult males, 523 adult females and 938 children or a total populations of 2,001  the  average  monthly  earning   per   adult   male  for  the  period comes to Rs.6-6-0, and per head of total population comes to Rs.1-11-3 for higher than the earnings by the Chenchus during any of the previous years.

            16. The Chenchus schools continued to function during these years and particulars regarding them are given below:- 

 

Year

Expenditure on Chenchu Education

Number of Chenchu Schools

Number of Children on Rolls

 

 

 

Boys       Girls       Total

Expenditure per child per year

1925-26

9,528

15

254           116        380

Rs.25

1926-27

12,448

21

305           141       446

Rs.27

1927-28

16,448

19

282           156       438

Rs.38

Total:

38,027

55

851           413    1,264     

Rs.90

Average:

12,676

18

283           138       421

Rs.30

 

 

 

 

17.In the matter of agriculture, to thing beyond giving the Chenchus some plans for the purchase of bills was done.  No stations are available regarding the income to the Chenchus from agriculture.

The position regarding bill loans was as given below, in the kurnool East Division:-

 

Year

Amount advanced  during the year

Rs.

Amount recovered during the year

 

Rs.           A.        P.

Amount Pending recovery at the end of the year

Rs.                 A.                 P.

1922-23

2,136

                 0          0

2,130              0                   0             

1923-24

     60

 24            0          0

2,136              0                   0

1924-25

   438

694           0          0 

1,196              0                   0

1925-26

   360

197           8          0

2,078              8                   0

1926-27

1,030

222           8          0   

2,886              8                   0

1927-28

     58

849           5          0

2,095              3                   0

 


 

PROCESS-OF THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS 321 PRESS 15TH  JULY 1932        

 

 

 

 

Year

Amount

1923-24

18,931

1924-25

13,143

1925-26

13,968

1926-27

17,060

1927-28

20,297

Total:

83,407

Average:

16,681

 

 

 

 

 

18.(A) CHENCHU POPULATION - The present Chenchu population is given below:-

 

 

 

Forest Division

Number of Families

Adults

 

 

Males   Females  Total

Children

 

 

Boys     Girls    Total   

Population

 

 

 

West Division

   500

  556         559       1,115

    545       438      983

  2,098

East Division

   440

  510         502       1,012

    496       358      854

  1,866

South Division

     70

    75            76          151

      41         39         80

      231

Total:

1,010

1,141     1,137      2,278

1,082        833    1,915

  4,195

 

 

 

19.(b) Chenchu Population the present Chenchus population is given below:-

Note: In the figures given for the West Division are included 21 miles with a population of 21 male adults. 26 female adult, 19 boys lire of details lingamayya with 20 girls, is. Total of 85 of the Durgam Chenchus gudem and for our female details Lingamayya with a population of two males, four female mentioned in the section 16 notification.

19. Clan war and Range war distribution of the population is give Appendices I and II respectively.  There are 59 District clans and their strength in numbers and distribution afford in be trusting study.  The kudu has are strongest in number with a total of 616 and are represented in the East Division.  They are not to be found either at Baireni or ahobilam in the East Division.  They are not to be found either at Baireni or ahobilam in the South Division.  While in the East Division they are well represented in garapenta.  Fallepaem and chencapale the North-east most gudem in the East Division. (Only three families found in chanchus chanapalem and are not to be found in three other manor gudems, in the West Division they are confined to Indirawarem, Kurkunda, Pecherubesirluty and Nagaluty.  The Bumania are the next in strength of members with a total population of 452.  They are represented in seven gudems in the West Division and in 15 gudems in the East Division, and in one gudem in the South Division.  While for the West Division the Uthaluris and the galls as the first and second in order of strength of numbers in the East Division, the Kundumullas and Bumania hold that position.  Again while on the total of 59 clams.  57 clans are presented in the West Division, jonly 26 cleans and 22 respectivly, are found in the East and South Division the chevllas to be found only at pecheruvu and Devesals points in the West Division and in Nekkanti, palution and Darbailu in the West Division.  The pities are to be found in the pochruvu, Sri Sailam on Nekkanti gudems in the West of the Nallamala  and at Chennapalem and corapenta the north casternomo at gudems in the Kurnool district.  Silam Chenchus are found only in three gudem Rudrode in the West Division and burugundla and chennapalem in the East Rudcode is about the south wet most gudem while Chenchuspal is the north sontermost Gornipents in the and carinip on a in the East Division.  Guzzaris are found only at baironi in the south Division and penda in the West Division.  The Girthas and Kolules are found only in Rudracode of the West Division and Ahobilam of the South Division.  The topics are rested to bairaluti and the santhis to Narapareddkunta gudem in the West Division.  The thokals are to be found only at Srisailam.  The judotia, balunis, barigalae, Katereus, Mireplans, ayilenion pursalse Dayas, poggula and vottallas are to be found only in the group of gudems in the sivapuram range of the West Division, situated in the North Western corner of the Nallamala is and adjoining the leins the nagalas, garaboyyas and burma are have settle as a result of large scale forest operation in the violity.    The paramas chenhus are pound only at abrazekunta the Chenchus are represented only in pairuni and yelapala, blla mogili, barussi, china Kalluri sourem yetagiri and gandala are sound only in ahobilam gudem.

PROCESS OF HE CHIEF CENSER OF FORESTS 3213 PRESS *4th 15th July 1932

20. (B) The Chanchus earnings form forest operation during 1926-29 are given below:

            Forest Division         Earning in Rupees               Remarks

 

West Division                          55,615                The Minor forest produces and

       East Division

       South Division

bambes were leased out to contractors during the year and five times the bembeos revenue by Chenchus taken as the Kurnool South Division given for the Kurnol denotion has to be made of for out sids dedtion has to be made for out outside labour and three times to minor forest produce revenue have been taken as the earning employed in bamboo’s collection.

            Taking the figures given in (  ) supra for the population except in the case of the West Division for which the population of the Durgam and Dantalallagayya gudem are to be excluded, the average monthly income per adult male and per head of total population comes to Rs.8-1-0 and Rs.2-5-0 the East Division and Rs.6-40 and Rs.1-11-0 resotively, for the two divisions taken together. From the above figures, it is clear that the earning by Chenchus from the forest operations have considerably improved during the year.  This is due to the fast that system aid working of forest sunder a regular working plan has been stated in the East Division, and the lease system which has been successful in the West Division has been extended to the East Division as well.

             21. (C) Free greasing appendix III give comparative idea of the gross allowed at settlement and now being enjoyed by the Chenchus.

             22. As far as the West Division is concerned except in the indireswaras gudem there is no increase in the number of cattle or goats for which free grasing was allowed at settlement.  In fact, while free grasing was West Division as a whole at present only 438 cattle and 1,112 goats of the West Division and 133 cattle and 41 goats of the Tumalabailu gudem which is in the east Division, but which was included in the Pochervs gudem (West Divisions) at settlement, enjoy free gari grazing; thus grazing thus levis cattle and 1,618 goats in the number for which free grasing  was originally allowed.  In the case of the Indireswaramgudem while these is decreased by 46 in the number of cattle for which free gring was allowed, there is increase in the a number of goatsis due to the forest that the indireswaram Chenchus have taken up goat rearing as a commrcial population. 

            23 In the east Division, on the other hand, there has been a large increase a number of gudems in the number of cattle and goats for which free grasing was allowed at settlement.  Out of the 25 gudems now existent  in the East Division, three gudem are newly form and joint of the remaining 22 gudems, there is increase in both cattle and gotsin 10 gudems only in the case of chilakacherla, Nekkanti, Palutis, Yerrepenta, Nedamobelime, Grainipenta and Nallapalm there is a deeresein both cattle and gots peddachinarripalem Pedda Mantrala, Gareponta and chennapalem are the chief gudems in which there have be enlarge increases in both cattle and goats.  There are       the highly advanced gudems in the East Division and the Peddamentanala see in the case of the Chenchus jkfor who sufficiant departmental work and provisions are readily available and cultivation is also advanced.  The existence of these obtain large numbers makes successful regeneration operations practically impossible in their besides, gradually running the existing forest growth.  This is exnotly the position at Peddama Marripalem and Peddamantilala.  In the case of Chennapalem and garupenta, the affect of the goate on the forest growth.


 

PROCESS OF THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FOREST 3 21 PRESS, 15TH JULY 1932

Gudem are situated in valley formed of highly undulating grow good percentage of the stock is yap.  It is indeed a very pitiable sight to the condition of the forest in the valley praction every yamp tree tree heavy unfulsigne of heavy pallarding.  Then taking the whole of the East Division into consideration, and including the gudem completely abounded for purpose of calculating the number of cattle and goats for which free grasing was allowed at settlement, we find that which there are 1,250 cattle.  485 goats and six sheep.

            24.In the south Division 175 cattle and 450 goats and sheep were allowed at settlement but at present there are only 53 cattle and 23 goats thus there is a decrease be 122 in cattle and 477 in goats.

            25.Though   cames of abuse by the Chenchus of the provilling of free grasing did not come to my notice during my enquiry, I could (galhar) gate are that illicit grasing of cattle and illicit removal of agricultural implements and other member of ten taken place with the connivance the chenchu who are heavily indebted to the roytcs in more than one roop etc.  Fir            the more well to among the chenchs are literally boted to the revers.  Secondly the tyots has to do the entire cultivation for the Chenchus in most cases while probably such cultivations and a profit shaing

 basis may notice Aryan profitable to the royots, the ryot to do the cultivation for the Chenchus with his own balls and in spite of this the tyot willingly does the cultivation, the reaspons for the seek.

             26.(D) Chenchus cultivation - West Division the Narugutti, Durgam and Deptala lingamayya Chenchus are the most              in the West Division.  They do the entire cultivation by these and even their women and children work in the fields in fact they morally completely result with the riot population has brought about happy result in the cases these gudem.  The Iondirevarem Nagaluty and Pasurutla Chenchus come next order.  Some of the Chenchus in these gudems do the cultivation by then selves, but ordinary they engaged only outside labour on daily wage or on worms to but ordinary they engaged only on daily wages or on a profit sharing basis.  The Pecheruvu and Bairluty Chenchus have forest works to keep them fully engaged throughout the year and are not really koon cultivation the reining gudesm in the West Division are very backward in this respect.

             27.West Division Chennaplem and Carapenta are the most highly advanced gudem in the East Division.  They corps revary favourably with Naragutti and Durgam in the West Division.   The Chenchus of these gudem are hard work and take interest in cultivation.  Nature has unfortunately not been very kind to them and they have to shift for themselves as best as they can with the rocky soil at their disposal.  There being an  blocks of lands suitable for cultivation in the violity of their gudem the valley in which they live is highly undulating and consiate sostly of grantion or shaly formations in various stages of disintegration they have selected suitable patches acatteredall over the valay and now under cultivation.  They have occupied nearly all such suitable localities they don’t only outside labour or outside bulls.  Ped achema, ‘Peddamantrala, Marripalem Chilakacherla, Telugurayanicheruvu and mall next in order.  In these gudems also cultivation has advenced in fact since very olden days these Chenchus wood to have cultivation.  Only a few among the Chenchus know the art of cultivation and genarally outsiders are employed on daily wages or on a proof sharing basis                     chinematrala, allipalem Daddabala mad Machelima Darabailu, Madkanti Palutla, and garhipet attempts were made by the Chenchus for starting cultivation given up for riots reseds in the rest of the gudems no attempt over made in this direct even to-day the Chenchus of Darabaila, Poanalabailu, Yerraponis, Medanoima, burugundla and allipalem are very in their criminal propeses would not probably allow them to go any further in this direction.

28. Except the Chenchapalem and cerpenta Chenchus they may at 2 amongs per acre none of the other Chenchus pay any assessment for cultivation done inside reserves.

29.South Division the paireni Chenchus have plently of Departmental work to keep them fully engaged throughout the year and Chenchus are fully employed in the temple or under riots and they are not keen on cultivation.

 PROCESS OF THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FOREST, 321 PRESS 15TH JULY 1932

            30. A Statement appendix I appended which an idea of the progress of               

cultivation .

            31.Besides the great of to the Chenchus for the purpose of bulls, nothing further have been        in further case of chanchus cultivation.  Regarding bull leaus in 192-29 in give below:-

 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Demand for the year                West Division                                                         Balance

                                                Collection during the year

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Areas    Current        Total        Arrears    Current       Total      Arrears      Current          Balance

Rs.    A     Rs.   A.P.    Rs.A.P.       Rs.A.P      Rs.A.P.        Rs.A.P.                     Rs.A.P.               Rs.A.P.

 

 

 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

            32.(e) Chenchus education except the remote gudems such as Srisilam in the West Division, and the not early accessible gudem in the Morricheruvu platanu, Chenchus shools have been opened in practically all the gudems where sufficient number joke children are forth coming a school is shortly to be opened at Chennapalem. The Chennapalem and Garepenta Chechus are be the most advanced in the matter of education, for the whole of the Kurnool district.  Eight Chenchus were sent to the Markapur High School from these gudems, and three of these are now serving a school masters in Chenchus schools, three out of these eight Markapur returned to Chenchus are how without jobs.  Among the educated Chenchus whose education ended with the Garepenta a School, three an elemeouring for job under government.  It is only in these gudems that there is a regular clamour for appointments. These educated Chenchus represented to no that the Government that educated than has now to provide them with jobs as school masters or forest guards, as, according to them, they have become unfit as a result of their education for doing cultivation or for any of the evaluations of the Chenchus.  Comparing with these Chenchus, those at margutt (West Division), the standing with these Chenchus those at civilisation is practically the same in both cases with the one difference that the young generation among the latter had a contented agricultural life and have no elamour for jobs.  This I think is due to the fast that the margutti Chenchus demeted more of this attention to practical agriculture and other similar in the Chenchus schools while it has to be recognised that considerable good has been done to the younger generations by the education that is being imparted to them, the positions at garapanta with its miniature problem of unemployed indicates that the time has now come for a definite change in the policy relating to Chenchus education.

            33. During 1928-29 there were 18 schools for the Chenchus children, and one exclusively for Chenchus girls, under 15 trained and 4 untrained trained teachers, two Chenchus were under  training is the Kurnool Training Training school there was 270 boys and 167 girls on the rools at the end of he year as against 202 boys and 156 girls on the 31 at of March, 1928. The expenditure during 1928-29 on Chenchus education was Rs.13,650-14-31 and the expenditure during the year join Chenchus social staff was Rs.19,344.

             34.(f) Chenchus criminals except for occasional end to breks gain at the penal code sections and the ordinary offences punishable under the Forest Act, there is at present no trouble from the Chenchus, during 1920-29 12 offences against the forest Act and one against the Indian penal Code were committed by the Chenchus.

             35. Rudrcode, Pinged and Pasurutla in he West Division and Chintalamadipi, Chilakalacheta, allipalem and Mallapalem gudems in the West Division, continue to be the bad gudem in this respect. 36.(A) Chenchus debts, - In the Kurnool West and South Divisions.  In gudems like bairuluti, Pecheruvu and Barai, there are plenty of departmental works and the Chenchus have no need for the sowears.  In the other gudems of theses divisions, the Chenchus own few cattle or goats are not trusted by the sowear.  Thus the problem of Chenchus debts deed not really arise in the West or the South Division.  In the East Division matters are, lowever, differen, went of departmental works and proximity to village, have forced the Chenchis of the East Division into the bands of the showcases. 

PROCESS OF THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FOREST 321, PRESS JULY 1932 : 

From years past, and there is probably not one gudem which was not indected to the soward one time or ther.   In fact in some kof the gudems like chilakacherla Pedda Peddantralu, karripalem and telugurayani Cheruvurugular the sowcars for the more well do among the less favoured among these Chenchus readily got small loans  probably on account tival value as illicit supolies of agricultural implement and East Division.  The total debt comes to Rs.9,832 without interest.  This sowcars accounts the loans the higher being the interest.

 Part II

Chapter I 

The purpose of the present enquiry.

            37. In this report kon the Chenchus question, dated 13th April 1921 contained in C.O.No.101 Judicial, dated 25 th January 1922 Mr.Hoir wrote on the fundamentals of the chenchu problem as below we must accept theritence of the Chenchus and fact that they cannot be remove their present habitations .    That is to any, a ploicy of departation is outof the question.  Firstly on humaition the removal to some distant centre it would have to be remote from their hills would probably mean their gradual extermination soundly, the mainitanances whetheremoval as effection by foring a regular criminal setelment thirdly, if they were removed, their place in the economy jkof the Forest Departmen would have to be taken by others and thers is no guarrantee that these now comers would be more anabable in the klong run to forest diaciline than the Chenchus.  Adopting there fore the postualate they must remain, there is the suggestion that they should be confined to a certain area in the Nallamalais. A part from the fact that this would be most unjust to a consideable number of gudem against whigh no morious charge can be brought even if it should be put into for it would simply identify the difficulty the above mastedly exposition of the fundimantalas of he Chenchus problem.  The question of their imlatikon has been abandoned once for all and we are no with the problem of regularning the position of the Chenchus in the Nallamalais.

             38. Since be days of settlement, number of changes have occured resulting in variations in the rights allowed to the Chenchus at the time of settlement in the matter of their  Cultivation lordeand fee grasing .  Woman died as the Chenchus have always been, they have move from place in many cases have case completely abandring the gudem sites allowed to them at  settlement, forming new gudems whorever they west.  In certain cases the Chenchus, had to leave their orginal gudem wharever they want.  In certain cases the Chenchus had to leave therir orginal gudem as work was provided for the by the forest department at jother places whatever the reasons may be, a number of new gudems have        up and a number of old onces have been complately abandoned.  In a few cases even now the Chenchus keep on moving from place to place, while in certgain other case different siites are occupied during different sessons of the year.  Besides as a result of the frequent of gudems from place to place considerable variations have occurred since to be time of settlement in the matter of the lives look owned by me Chenchus of specific gudemes as allowed at Settlement.  Practically in every gudem as allowed at settlement.  Practionally in every gudem there is a present as increase or decrease in the number of goats and cattle for which free grasing was allowed at settlement.  The present enquiry was set on foot with a view to regularly those from the rights allowed at settlement.  A more enquiry kon the variations followed by proposals for their regularisation will serve useful purpose unless mensure are sinsulateneously taken to make further similar variations impossible in the matter of gudem sitem apart from the questiohnl of the frequent shifting of gudem site frenquently  resulting in the clearing of reserved forest, it is very necessary and highly desirable that the Chenchus should be permantly settled at defferent centres and brought under complete control so that proper protection of the forest from fire, theft and destruction may be easily possible local leabour may be readily available for the local forest department works, and the original propensities of the Chenchus may be effectively checed.

             39 . To make them permanently settle at different centre, it is necessary that.

 ( ) Sufficent departmental works should be provided for them near their homes to enable them to set a living for themsalves and theri family.


 

 PROCESS. OF THE THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FOREST 321 PRESS 15TH JULY 1932.

             40. Strong vested interest shold be cretted in the locating for a large member of the Chenchus in the ideality if not for the entire Chenchus population, so that they may not be easily inclimed to loave the locality.  This can be done only by inducing the chanchus in larger and larger number to take to permanent cultivation.

             41. Except in a few gudems such as pecheravu and bairluty most of the foroest work are stopped during the rains, and the chencus require employment during such sessons if they are not to realease into erins (against the forest Act and Indian penal Code).  West of work during such also creats in the chenchu and inellanation to back to their te fom this against will be te Chenchus take to preme as the leason when they may not have otherworks corresponds with he agricultural season.

             42.(D) India of Co-operation should be strongly instilled into the minds of the Chenchus adultand be future generation with a view to their relaxing the advantages of corporate living, and there by creating between Chenchus and Chenchus of the gudem would think in terms kof the gudem instead of their individual such  feling of oneness among the Chenchus of the gudem well boavary among inoent for their giving meir present dio habits.

             43. (E) Adulteduction should be taken up along with the education of the children.  The education for the adults should be directed to wards exeating in teem loving and interest the forest, in agriculture and in co-operative methods.  The evials of drink which is one to the which underaine the general physical condition and take them they prey total kinds of deseas including syphilis which is of settle civilisation vividly pictured before them practically all their education should be in the complete lactures and appropriat fils should be very largely need.

            44. (F) view to               local intarest in the                  of the future naration, the given to the Chenchus children should be that in addition to their learing the three they should lead to the foren          in which they have to develop  a strong interest in agriculture and the forests work which are to given then their living and in their gudem and rounding.  

(A)  PROVISION OF SUFFICIENT WORK BY THE FOREST DEPARTMENT

             45. Kurnool West Division as a result of the introduction since 1925-26 of systamatic bamboo working and the opening of timber cumfuel suoupes practically ever the whole of the Kurnool West Division bassd on M.R.Ray, Sehib K.R.Venkatremana Ayyar scheus approvedin chief conservator’s proceedings R.No.287 press dated 21st August 1938 sufficent work is provided for most of the Chenchus in the West Divison.

             The tinke cumfued soupose are situated within five miles of each gudem with view of provied work for the chanohusnear their home with the sanction of the working of plan now under preparation for the West Division, there will be no death of work for the Chenchus.  In the case of the Chenchus in the stvapuram Bang for when sufficient is not availablies the fuel and bamboo coupes in the range, planty of work will be provided by the timberoperations which will be started jon the sivapuram plateman and the Chenchus who have absioned their orginal homke, on the plates will have to be colousied at aripentia.  If this is done the Chenchus of the West Division will have more than enough work.

             46. Kurnool South Division.  In the Kurnool South Division as a result of the working plans sanctioned in 1925-26 for the chelama and sirval Ranges, plenty of work is provided for the Chenchus in the division (Baireni and Ahooilam) in the timber coupos, bamboo ;coupes and timber in bamboo coupes and fuel coupes. 

             47. Kurnool West Division-In this division also a working plans has been brought in force, and a number jof coupes have been opened.  All  the same on account jof the poor quality kof the  forest in the East Division, and on account  of the Chenchus being very much acatered, sufficient work cannot be found for all the Chenchus in the Division.

             48. Large soal timber oprationsare taken up at Gundlebrahaswaram and and Iakagunda, and such of the Chenchus in the East Division for whom, sufficient forest work is not available should be made kto colonise from the gundlabraheswaram and Iskagudem centres.  In fact the colony at Iskagudem way with adventage par take of them ture of a original settlement and the criminal Tribes Act may be applied to this colony in modified form.  The colony would consist of the Chenchus of the Kalanu chilakacherla and allpalemagudems of the East Divison, the those among the Chenchus of the other gudems in the three divison who are not to rious for their orginal popanstions.  The Chenchus of the

 gudems of the East Division mentioned above are either no torious for their crimina propensition or have been giving trouble to the police in various degrees, and have not got suffiient forest works to keep the fully in their present locations.  The population of his colony may come in nearly 100 families with 100 adultmales, 100 adult females and 180 children or a total population 380 and if the colonisation scheme nature, we would have least solved the labour problem at Iaukagudem and Gundlabrah brought the crinminally inclinod Chenchus under proper control, and would have solved the difficulty of providing work for such of the Chenchus for who we are now able to

             (b) AGRICULTURE :

             49.With a view to enable the Chenchus to trake to agricultue on a large scale provision is now made for safficient lad suitable for the purposes.  The proposed enclosures for the different gudems best does convaning sufficinet land for cultivation also include sufficinet land suitable for dwellng sites.

             (c) CO-OPERATION AND EDUCATION :

             50 Details regarding these are purely matters kof administration are not relevant to the present report.  Hence they are not dealt would the.


 

 CHAPTER II

PROPOSALS REGRDING GUDEM ENCLOSURES.

             Gudem sites cultivations and garden lands allowed as enclosures the time kof settlement but now completely abandoes.

             51. Appendix VI give particulars regarding such.  These enclosures are no langer required by the Chenchus and may be afforeted.  Thus though affin rstatuib us afforatation is the proper way of disposing of these enclosures which were allowed as unreserves at the time kof settlement, such a course is not practicable for the following reasons.

            52. Fristly, in most cases their cannot position as allowed at the time of settlement cannot be marked kon the ground as original demarcation is not raceabl, the section 16 notification do not give any boundary descriptions for them and the forest settlement maps in which they are marked are nerely sketch maps drawn to a small scale.  Thus it is now impossible to give proper boundary descriptions for such enclosure and           no proper proposals can be submitted for their afforestation.

             53.  Secondly, these enclosure are all very small in extent being ordinarily not larget than 5 acres.

             54. Thirdly, even when some demarcation can now be traced kon the gound, it is not certain whether the present position is the actual position of the gudem as allowed at settlement, In one case at any rate, viz, pangidi, this in is not the case.  While the boundary stones are now located round the gudem site at present actually occupied, a reference to the forest settlement map that he site as allowed at settlement was located at a different place altogather Evidently the Chenchus shifted the P.F.stones to the new locality when they seittled there.

            55.The only alternatives afforesing such area in to make use of the flight of               

vested in Government the time of settlement with reference to these dwelling sites, cultivations and garden lands and to extinguish the right allowed at settlement in respect of thus sites etc. This procedure may not define the status of these enclosures, that will make itimpossible for the Chenchus to put their       

and do heir cultivation when eventhey like kon the plan that the sites occupied by them were the ones allowed to them at settlement for.

             56.  A draft notification for the purpose is appendied.

             57. Tracings of our vay of Indian sheete should the areas are oposed by was as gudem concloures for the different gudems in the district are appaneded.  The areas of these encloasures are given in the tracing and in Appendix VII.  As also in column 15 of Appendix IX.

 14.  PROCCS. OF THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS 321 PRESS 15TH JULY 1932.

             58. In  cause (pleace vide Appendix VIII) dwelling site and cultivations which were originally allowed at settlement and which are not included the list (Appendix VI) of definitly gudem site i.e. within the proposed a enclosured.  Except in a view census these gudem sites at  not  on the ground and they have been shown kor the

 tracings of the enclosures as corretly as possible with reference enclosed to the forest settlement camps (sketch map) prepared at the time of reservation with which are recorded in the collector office. In at these in cluded within the proposed enclosures, the sistus of thes enclosures will not matter.  These may also be closed long with their rest of the area included in the proposed enclosures.

 C.  Duelling tes cultivation and gardens, allowed at settlement laying outside the proposed gudem enclousures which it is now proposed to continue as unreserve enclosures.

             59. These refer to sites which are now actually occupied or under cultivation orused as the case may be these have been maked kon the tracing kof proposed enclosures accompenying this report with referen to the fofrest settlement maps and the-sites now actually occupied by the chenchs as in most cases the orginal boundaries are not traceable.  They are 1.Devarselapenta(dwolling sites 1.54 acres and garden 0.83 acres), 2.Nagaluty (dwalling sites 3..10 acres) 3.Attikessaram (dwlling sites 8.27 acres, garden at gansadara 0.31 acaresin the Nandiktkur Reserve pasarutla (plantain garden 100 50 wards, and cultivation at Kolimicbruvu a little over 3 aceres and 2.15acres garden for in ganapalli gudem in the Nadyal Roserve 1.Medemachellima dwelling site at Medamchelima 2 suddakunta (dwelling sites 2 acres at Suddakunta) 5.Pattaland, unsrurveyed No.94 of Kerapanta (area 12.50 acres) 4.60 (d) The following general principles have guided me in fixing the areas for the different gudem enclosures.

             61. (A) Sufficient provisions has be made for cultivable lands west the eventuel requirements of entire Chenchus population in the gudem.  Five acres are allowed roughly per family, A Chenchus family nonally conists of a single adult deied male and Singhle adult able bodied                   as male member up to suparate family the he is marned, and the Chenchus nomally marries after he is sufficiently grown up take out his living by himself.  These 5 acres should keep the family fully engaged during the cultivation season, and will require a pair of bulls for the ploaghing etc. Operations.

            62. (B) Moe-htan one suitable gudem site should allowed to the chenchu within the proposed enclosured etc. Enable him to satisfy his sentimental objections to gudem sites in which serious calamities have a occured the proposed enclosures contain plots oif high ground, not suitable for cultivation, but quite suitable forgudem sites.  When for sentimental resons the chenchu wants to shift his gudem, he make non inroads into the reserve. 

            64.(C) Provision should be made for sutable sites within near enclosues for penning chenchu settle during nights.  Provisionis made for these requirements. 

            64.(D) Wherever possible natural features like vagus, and already existing cart tracks and cut lines, should be utilized for the enclosure boudruesm with a view to minimize the enitial cost of demaroation, and feture expenditure on mednterpace.  As a result of this may of the posed enclosures are a larger in area then what is obsolutely required for the purpose of the Chenchus.

             65.(E) As far an possible the proposed enclosure should be conpact blocks including within the single bnlock including within the single block the gudem sites, sites for peming Chenchus cattle, and lands for cultivations so that the chenchu may have his cattle and his cultivation are not available close to the gudem sites, as in the case of Srisailam one gudem in allowed more than one enclosure also in of aditre one which have been already cleared for cultivation and are now actually under cultivation, as far as possible such sites have been included within the proposed enclosures.  When this was not possible account of the existing site of cultivation being too far away from the gudem site such have to be separate enclosures by themsleves.

             66.(F) The proposed enclosures may be permanetly demarcated and set apart for the chanchus subject to the following conditions.

 67.(A) The chenchu will have no right of any kind on the land he cultivation will be allowed only the sight to cultivate the land.  No rights allowed over the allowed for cultivation at settlement and none real therefore be allowed. 


 

PROCESS OF THE CHIEF CONSER.OF FORESTS 321 PRESS 15TH JULY 1932

             68. (B) We will be allowed cultivate the land fre of any assignment for the time being except in the case kof chanapale and in the East Division where at resent is being co-acted  2 persons per acre. 

            69.(C)The land will be   to the Chenchus, and the will be renewed every year.  

             70. (d) Sandalwood and any other timber treas not may be considered by the District Forest Office should be preserved, should not be at under any circumstances, so all tamarind, now cur-vomica, myreb  and velaga Trees 

            71.(e) The entire enclosures should not be cleared at once, unless such an confarance is necessary to improve the saniteti of the locality.  Land should be cleared as and when such land is reuired for cultivation or for gudem sits.  When land once cloared unless with the previously cleared land has been cultivated sufficiently long to required West. 

            72.(F) All timber and other salesble material obtained by clearing land within the enclosures should be handed over to the Forest Department for disposal and till after the sale able produces in removed kor other wise safe garded the cleared plot should not be fired.

             73.(G) The Chenchus will be allowed to put up their huts any where within the proposed enclosures but will not be permited jto put thier any where outside the possed enclosure unless the previous permission of the District Forest Officer in case of serious expidemic or for other reasons. 

            74. The large of the proposed enclosur will require excecutive sanction.

CHAPTER III 

PROCESS REGARDING FREE CRAZING FOR CHENO LIVE STOCK

            75.(a) Goats and sheep the number of for which fre graing was allowed settlement and the number now actually owened by Chenchus are given in Appendix III and IX.

             76.(I) West Division close to practically all the gudems in this devision are located coups under regenaration, and these goats are most unwelcome in such centres.  From a forester’s point of view.  Every attempt should therefore be made to restict their number to the absolute minimum possible.  At present in all the gudems in the West Divion, except Indireswaram, the number now found is less than the number allowed at settlement.  Even at Indiraswaram only a few of the Chenchus of the gudem own all the goats and and goatsare mostly reared for the purpose of trade.  The Indireswaram Chenchus agreed to reduce their nu;mber of goats to the limit allowed at settlement. 

            77.(ii) East Division. In this Divison Peddamantralas, Madapenta stals marripalem peddachame guttalachervu Telunutabasicheru, and cerpen are the gudems in which there is a district in the number jof goats as compared with the numbner allowed at settlement of these except quttlachna, suddakunta, Telugusyanicheruvu.  Chenepul the remaining gudems have coups under regeneration in the these coupes is already pornted kout part, chapter III, the pitiable condition of the forest at Chenchus and garapenta is lergely due to he large number of goats in the se gudeme.  No free grafing was allowed for these Chenchus at settlement, and now they own between themselves 426 goats.  With a population of 30 families while the injuries effect of the exietece of the large number of goats in guttlache suddakunta and telugurayanicheruvu is not at present so marked as at cheapalem or garapenta, the position in these centres will also become serious in course of time unless the number of goats are effectively checked from now.  As already pointed out in chapter IV.  Part, I large number is not a necessity either, for the Chenchus.  Though the goat may serveas famine insurence in the case of poor Chenchus, it is exactly the very poor among the Chenchus who don’t own any goats.  An analysis of the number of goats owned by the Chenchus in the different gudems shows that ordinarily it is the more well to do among the Chenchus, who own large numbers of cattle, and large also have some goats as well, In the case of gudems in which there is large decrese in the number of goaats allowed at settlement, the goats are not really a problem now.  As they are small in number and as there are no coupes under regenration in the neighbourhood of such gudems. 

            78. (iii) South Division - There is no increase in the number of goats allowed at settlement.

             79.  Under the circumstances explained above, it is very necessary in the interest of the forest concerned that where there is an increase in the number of goats allowed at settlement, the excess number of goats should be got rid of by the Chenchus, as early as possible.  To dispose of the goats ationce will mean a sacrifice to the Chenchus as the potential purchasers of the goats will, when they know the position, bargain with the Chenchus for unreasonably low prices.

The Chenchus may therefore be allowed to completely dispose of the excess number within one year from the date of order An acception will have to be made in the case of chenapalem and Garepenta for whith no free grazing was allowed newly strted gudems, viz. Darabal u and Burugundalu and chintalanudipi free grazing of goats may be allowed to the extent now actually found in case gudems        ease vide columns 10 and 11 of appendix IX.  So also in the case of gudems there there is a decrease in the number of goats.  In those gudems the number now actually found columns 10 and 11 of Appendix IXC May be allowed.  In these cases to make up for thedecrease in the number of goats allowed at settlement free grasing may be allowed for a certain number of cows or buffaloes in line of the deficit number of goats, at the rate of one cow for every goat or one buffelo for every two goats.  Some of the Chenchus whom I sounded in this respect are aggreeable to this proposal.  They however, do not want sheep inlien of the goats.  The number of goats now proposed to be allowed for the different gudems is giving in Appendix III  and IX in the West Division in no gudem is the number of cattle in exces of the number allowed at settlement.  In the East Division leaving vide the newly for gudems, viz., chintiumi barbailu, Caraponta and chenapalos the is in the number allowed at settlement in Daddahla (by 1) in telugurayaidaaruvu (by 60) inNarripalem (by 21) and in Peddamtrala (by 162) in the other gudems there is no increase.  In the South Division there is an increa by 3 in the caireni Gudem and increase in the other gudems.  As long as Systematic cultivation is not taken lup there will really be noted for cattle on any large unless the chenchu taken regular cattle rearing as in India in the West Division.  In fotrom Appendixces III and IX will be seen that in the West Division the Chenchus in7 gudems out of 15 do not own any cattle except one or more bulls that were given to them by the Department.  Among the aining gudems eairl has only 31 out of 380 allowed at settlement.  Nagaluty out of 150pecheruvu 103 out of 250 allowed settlement, in Cuttulachem 17 out of 150 in Ierrukpents 28 out of 50 inMadamchelima 29 out of 40 and in chilakacherla 29 out of 60.  In most of the gudems where there is a proconderence in the number of cattle the cattle are kept chief yet for the ghee and cards which found large calo particularly during the siveratoil festival or for purpose of cultivtion.  But in the majority of gudems the number of cattle are far less than the number allowed at settlement and in those cause the cattle are kept.

 Ordinarily as staryation  insurance i.e., intimes of serve discriving tghe bull calves are sold lin excehange for grain etc. An analasis of the number of cattle owned by individual families in each gudem clealry shows that a large majority own or no cattle at all.  The position in the West Division is analysed below.

             81.  In bairluty out of 70 families, 55 own no cattle nine families own a signal animal, those own three each two own four each and one family owns five i.e. a total of 31 including calvs for the whole gudem, In Nagalutyont of 66 families 47 own no cattle seven own a single animal four own two three two four each one family five, once owns six, one owns eight and one owns 11 i.e., a total of 59 for the gudem.  In pecheruvu out of 75 families 50 own no cattle six own one eachs even own two each, five three each one owns four one owns five on one owns six, one owns eight onwords to one owns 12 and family owns 23 i.e., -a total of 103 for the whole gudem.  In Srisailam out of 32 famuilies 19 do not own any cattle one owns a single animal, the own two each two own 14 each one owns 19, and family owns 32(i.e.) in all 114 including calves.  In Indireawaram out of 50 famiulies.  44 own no cattle one owns three, one owns five, one owns six, one owns eight, one owns 15, and one family owns 23 i.e., a total of 60 for the whole gudem.

             82. Under the above circumstance to immediately allow any large increase over and above the number of cattle now set- actually owned by the Chenchus, will only encourage illidit grazing of outside cattle with the connivance of the Chenchus when ever cultivation is taken up in earnest more cattle will be required for the Chenchus and will then have to allowed.  When a family is fully engaged in cultivation during the cultivation season i.e., when about 2 to 5 acres Cultivation by a family, it will require one pair of bulls for the cultivation operations.  When leading the settled life of a cultivationeach family may also reuire one cow or a buffalo and two calves i.e. a maxmum of five expreased in cow unites.  Also taking the whole district into consideration of cattle allowed at settlement plus (in cases where in now incases in the number  of goats this number will be reduced to the number actually allowed number the goats now found in the sowly started gudems (in the case of Garapenta and Chenchapa emponly 100 and 75 goats.  Resoectivdly are allowed at settlement plus the deficit in goats expressed in cow units at one cow pet goats comes to 5.485 taking the population of 985 families this number work out to 5.57 cow units per family, which is nearly the same as the five cow units per family above arrived at, taking the round figure of five cow-unites per family, the maximum number of cattle for which free grasing may have to be ulotimataly allowed is given in the colum 14 of Appendix IX and in Appendix III.

 In no gudem in the West or South Division is this maximum less than the number of cattle now actually found.  In the East Divison out of the 25 gudems in Thummalabailu there is an excess of 68, in telugureyanicheruvu of 40 in maripalem of 44 in Peddocheama of 141 and in Garpenta of 2 or in the five gudems together there is an excess of 295.  After allowing at gudems to reduce the existing fives cow-units per family threre is still a balance of 560 cow-units out of the total 5,485 cow-units referred to above.  Therefore in these cases the number of excattle actually found in the gudem will be allowed as the maximum number and these number are noted in column 14 of Appendix IX and in Appendix III against these gudems.  The gudems in which it is proposed to insist upon the Chenchus reducing the number of goats asre (I) Indinwaram (ii) Cuttalacunenu (iii) Suddakunta (iv) Narripalem (v) Peddachama (vi) Chintala (vii) Chennapalem (viii) Garapaenta (ix) Haddipenta and (x) Peddamantrala the number of goats to be reduced are respectively 120 , 79, 12, 45, 130 10, 99, 152, 16 and 59.  At five cow-units per family, Inireararau gots 100 cattle over the number now found Guttalachernu gets 76.  Suddakunta gots 62, chintala gots 84 chennapalem gots 17, Maddipenta gots 85 and peddamnatrala gets 42.  Only in the case of Marripalem Peddachama and Garapenta there is no increase in the number of cattle already proposed to allow free grasing for the number actually found now though it is in excess of the numbner calculated at 5 per family all the same with a view to induce.  The Chenchus to readily give up the excess goats.  I propose further to increase the number kof cattle to the allowed free grasing by the number of goats which these Chenchus have now to give up.  Thus the number of cattle for which free grasing will be allowed are as below. 

           

 

 

 

Marripalem

169

Peddachama

426

Chenapaloem

120

Garapenta

202

Peddamantrala

221

Guttalachenu

 98

 

 

 

 

fore the remaining four gudems viz indirdwaram, Suddakunta chintala and Maddipenta, the reduction in the number of goats now found is more than covered by the increase in the number of cattle provided by allowing free grasing at five cow-units over family.

             83.  Taking all these increase into account the total maximum unmber of cattle for which free grazing is allowed comes to 5,572 ie. 87 cow-units more than the number of cattle allowed settlement plus the number of goats to be reduced.

             84.Only in the case of Bainluty, Srisailam, Panutla Guttachenu and Yerrapenta the maximum number of cattle now proposed to allowed is is less than the number allowed at settlement. 

            85. In the case of Bairluty, Sresailam and Guttalachenu some of the gudem sites orginally alloed under these gudems have been completely abandoned and bence there dedotion in the number.  In the case of palutla some jof the Chenchus of the old alutla gudem have settled in Darabailu and other gudems and hence the reduction garrapenta is in fact a new gudem formed by Chenchus jof Modamahalima and only a few families of Narthadikala live herenow.  Hence the reduction here which is only by 5. In all these cases the number now allowed is higher than the number now actually found in these gudems. 

            86. Considoring the enonmous damage done to the forest by the goats in comparison to the damage resulting from over graing by cattle, I propose the number given in column 13 of Appendix IX and in Append IX III (Colum9) may be fixed as the madmum number of cattle for which freegrazing may be allowed.  The number now actually owned by the Chenchus may be allowed free agrazing for the present and this number may be gradully increased to the maximum allowed (column 14 of Appendix IX and column 9 of Appendix III) as cultivation advance at the rate of five cow-units for every  family that takes to permanent cultivation.   This progressive scale is proposed with a view to minmum the changes of illitigrazing of non-chenchu cattle with the connivance of the Chenchus.   


 

CHAPTER IV

OTHER RIGHTS ALLOWED AT SETTLEMENT 

            87. The other rights relate to rights of way right of worship at sharinas.  Right to wtaring places, right for forest produce for bone fide domestic purpose, and right of collecting minor Forest produce.  All these right in addition to right of free grezing and right to cultivate dry lands.  To use certain gardens and to dowelling sites were allowed to specic gudems at settlements as seen from provious parugraphs most of the gudems orginally allowed a settlement have been abandotted and the Chenchus there of hav settled in new localittles in some cases out side reserven also there.  But have, coutnued inall the those cases to excerise the rights allowed to them in respect of right of way. 

Sharings, wataring paces, forest produce for purposes and forest produce under these circumstance even if the fact of their having abandona their original gudems may be considered to adirsely effect their respect of the right it will be most undesirable of these right.  It will be most of in wayinto forung with these rights.  Al these rights will he before be continu.

 

            88. Only two dabadi gudems with in the Markapur reserve the time of settlement enclosures, vis Mukigulu 3 acres and acres. No cultivation was allowed at settlment in either the enclosues has been shandoned as also the enclosure and the list of theis place are now liying at (in panchyat rajive) and at kappalakuntle in the markapur loservs.  The gudem sites orginally allowed for these len in the markakpur reserve may ;now be afforected.  A traching of the proposed to this report the bugulis will be allowed the proposed enclosure for cultivation and for their dwelling in chief Conservator’s procedings Mis.Ho.31 dated 23rd January 1923 they were given 38-38 acres for cultivation and practically the whole area has been totally  under cultivation.

             89. The cultivation will be allowed as at present on a system of annual lease with an assement payable to the Forest Department at 4 annas per acre.  Subsequest to settlement two lambadi settlement have been formed at palutla and Gutals scheme.  These are large gudems.  Cultivation was allowed to the at palutla in B.P. Forest His.No.347 dated 14th August 1918 and 30=50 a given and assement is being collected at 4 anna per acrea.  Most of this area is also under cultivation.  The suggli of Guttalachenu have also been asking for ilands for cultivation.  The proposed gudem enclosue for the palutla and Buttalachenu Chenchus includes land for the dwelling sites and cultivation.  Trees of the sugali in these centres.  That will be allowed to cultivats lands withinthese enclosures on the the conditions at present being aplied to the palutla and Kepalakunta gudesm.

             90. At settlement two huts belonging to a boy at pech were treated as unreserve and included the a plot 100 50 at present there are three boys families at pecheruvu.  The site allowed at settlement may be afforested and the boy as may be allowed to continue to live at pedhervu within the proposed pecheruvu gadem encrosure for resons already explained in chapter (b) suprs.

             91. The present population of these permnent sugli habitation is givenbelow:-

 Palutiala sugalis 19 femilies with 51 adults. 31 children or 82 in to Guttalar Chenchus sugalis 9 femilies with 23 adults and 9 children or 32 in total.  Kappalakunts 10 families with 17 adults and 19 children or 36 in total 38 famalies with 91 adul sugali t and 59 children or 150 in total.

             92. These sugalies and boys own catle and sheep and they any grasing for them they own no goats.

Sl.

No.

Name of clan

No.of gudem

in whi`ch found

KURNOOL WEST DIVISION

--------------------------------------

KURNOOL EAST DIVISION

 

No.of       Males   Females   Boys    Girls      Total

families

KURNOOL EAST DIVISION

-----------------------------------------------

KURNOOL EAST DIVISION

 

No.of       No.of       Males   Females   Boys    Girls      Total

gudem    families

in which

found

KURNOOL SOUTH DIVISION

----------------------------------------

KURNOOL SOUTH DIVISION

 

No.of       No.of       Males   Females   Boys    Girls      Total

gudem    families

in which

found

1

2

            3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

 

1

Kudumula

5

13

13

14

18

14

59

19

123

138

146

163

110

557

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 2

Bumani

7

32

39

34

32

25

130

15

75

85

90

83

59

316

1

1

1

2

1

2

6

 

3

Pilicherla

6

44

49

48

42

41

180

5

19

20

19

19

20

18

1

2

2

2

1

 

5

 

4

Dasari

10

30

30

29

36

20

115

9

41

49

48

49

37

183

1

7

7

6

2

3

18

 

5

Chigula

3

20

19

22

15

16

72

8

12

17

12

11

6

46

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

6

Chenila

2

5

5

5

5

1

16

3

23

23

23

16

12

74

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

7

Mandli

6

22

24

23

20

16

83

10

22

25

21

23

12

81

1

6

9

6

2

2

19

 

8

Uttabavi

7

70

80

80

78

69

307

4

16

18

17

16

11

62

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

Pitte

2

9

9

10

4

6

29

3

5

6

5

3

4

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

Marla

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

3

4

3

4

3

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

Silam

1

1

1

1

-

2

4

2

2

3

1

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

Urthala

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

3

4

4

2

2

11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

Dunsum

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

24

30

26

26

10

92

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

Jalls

5

15

19

20

20

18

77

4

8

8

11

10

8

37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Yekisari

-

-

 

-

-

-

-

2

7

8

9

6

11

34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16

Thati

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

8

15

11

15

11

52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17

Bojja

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

3

3

6

5

1

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

Akiam

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

3

4

2

3

4

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19

Guduri

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

1

2

-

-

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

Thogarn

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

 

2

2

-

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21

Palem

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

3

3

3

3

 

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22

Nagula

2

4

5

4

5

2

12

5

15

20

13

11

15

59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23

Arthi

3

24

26

27

34

25

112

6

16

20

19

17

15

71

1

2

3

 

1

 

 

 

24

Gulla

7

55

66

59

72

50

247

2

2

2

5

3

3

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

Wallaguntla

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

2

2

2

3

2

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26

Nimmala

9

32

35

43

49

32

159

1

3

3

3

3

3

12

1

3

5

3

4

 

 

 

27

Thata

5

18

20

20

11

9

60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

4

4

4

3

 

 

 

28

Paramas

1

4

3

4

6

12

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1`

2

3

1

 

 

 

 

29

Gazzari

1

3

4

3

 

2

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

30

Indla

3

6

9

8

4

12

31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

Giththa

1

4

6

5

3

4

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32

Aokula

1

12

17

14

10

10

51

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

3

3

3

3

3

 

 

33

Topi

1

3

3

3

3

1

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

Buranula

3

11

12

12

13

11

48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35

Garadivina

2

2

2

2

5

1

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36

Santi

2

3

3

3

4

3

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37

Boggula

1

1

1

1

-

-

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38

Vottella

-

8

9

8

6

5

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

39

Raya

1

7

4

7

7

6

24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40

Ayileni

4

20

18

25

17

14

74

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41

Rodda

1

1

1

1

5

1

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42

Purusals

1

1

1

1

-

1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43

Mirapela

2

2

2

2

3

2

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

44

Katareu

2

4

4

5

4

4

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45

Berigela

1

1

2

1

1

1

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46

Gudoti

1

1

3

4

4

1

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47

Balumura

-

7

7

7

6

4

24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

48

Gurram

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

3

5

5

8

4

17

 

 

49

Yellanala

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

2

3

2

3

10

 

 

50

Billa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

1

 

2

4

 

 

51

Mogili

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

2

1

1

1

5

 

 

52

Mogili

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

6

4

6

5

5

20

 

53

Ragi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

3

 

4

5

 

54

Chinta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

5

4

 

4

13

 

55

Kalluri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

1

 

 

2

 

56

Souram

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

1

1

 

3

 

57

Yetagiri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

2

3

 

 

5

 

58

Gandala

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

1

 

1

2

 

59

Thckala

1

5

5

6

7

7

25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

60

Miscellaneios

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

16

14

16

12

52

47

 

 

TOTAL:

 

500

556

559

545

438

2098

440

510

602

496

358

-1886

-

70

75

76

41

39

231

 

                                                 

  PROCEEDINGS OF THE CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FOREST, 321 PRESS, 15TH JULY 1932

 APPENDIX.II

GUNDEMWAR DISTRIUTION OF CHINCHU POPULATION

WEST DIVISION

Forest Division

and Range

Name of Gudem

 

POPULATION

TOTAL

 

 

ADULTS

CHILDREN

 

 

 

Male

Female

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

 

Erniped Range

Narappareddi

Kunta

22

22

44

19

23

42

86

G.B.M.Range

Abarajukunta

20

19

39

15

10

25

64

Bairluty Range

Pangidi

36

31

67

20

26

46

113

Bairluty Range

Rudracode

31

27

58

18

25

43

101

 

Pasurutla

14

11

25

6

8

14

39

 

Bairluty

79

76

155

82

47

129

284

 

Siddapuram

80

72

152

80

74

154

306

Pecheruvu

Pecheruvu

74

78

152

101

70

175

327

 

Srisailam

31

33

64

23

21

44

108

Sivapuram

Inditeswaram

59

57

116

59

44

103

21

 

Kurukunda(pothulamadugu

19

24

43

22

14

36

79

 

Guvlagunta

19

25

44

25

18

43

87

 

(SadarambandaKotipalli

16

16

32

14

12

26

58

 

Sivapuram and

Devarisela

18

21

39

24

11

35

75

 

Morugutti

16

17

33

15

8

23

56

 

Durgam

20

26

46

19

20

39

85

 

Dantalalingamayya

2

4

6

3

3

6

12

Total for the

Division

556

550

1115

546

438

983

2098

                     

 EAST DIVISON 

Dornal Range

Peddmanthrala

48

50

98

44

27

73

171

 

Chilakacherla

42

43

85

59

37

96

181

 

Chinamantharala

32

30

62

29

20

49

111

 

Chinthala

30

38

68

22

22

44

112

 

Marripalem

19

20

39

32

15

47

86

 

Peddachama

34

35

69

42

27

69

138

 

Thummalabailu

16

16

32

20

15

35

67

TurimellaRang

Maddipenta

19

19

38

10

6

16

54

Markapur

Chinthalamudi

228

32

59

24

18

42

101

Ganjivaripally

Range.

Allipalem

11

8

19

10

11

21

40

 

Daddanala

10

11

21

7

8

15

36

 

Telugurayani

14

18

32

22

15

38

70

 

Cheruvu

7

7

14

7

3

10

24

 

Darabailu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nokkanti

12

14

26

16

4

20

46

 

Palutla

30

24

54

15

16

31

65

 

Guttalacheruvu

21

14

35

12

4

16

51

 

Pannelabailu

7

5

12

5

2

7

19

 

Yerrapenta

10

9

19

17

4

21

40

 

Medemachelime

3

3

6

5

5

10

18

Yerrapgonda

Palem

Burugundala

19

14

33

9

10

19

52

 

Garnipenta

18

18

36

24

13

37

73

 

Suddakunta

15

13

28

12

11

23

51

 

Mallapalem

33

22

22

23

22

58

 

 

 

19

15

34

8

18

26

60

 

Garapenta

30

27

57

25

27

32

109

 

Chennapalem

15

21

36

19

18

37

73

Total for East

Division.

509

503

1012

495

 

 

 

 SOUTH DIVISION 

Chelamarange

Rairani

43

36

79

34

14

38

117

 

Basavwsram

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mahamandi and Gazulapalli

 7

10

17

6

5

10

27

Sirvel Range

Ahobilem

15

30

151

12

20

32

87

Fotal for the

South Division

75

76

151

41

39

80

231

 

Total for the Kurnool Dist.

1140

1138

2278

1081

836

1917

4185

 APPENDIX - III 

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF FREE GR           ALLOWED STATEMENT AND AS ENJOY DEPARTMENT. 

Sl.

No.

Name of present gudem

Name of the chenchus where from livie in the gudem noted in column

Free grazing allowed at settlement

Now enjoyed

The free grazing now proposed be alloted

 

 

 

cattle   goats    

           or shep

cattle   goats

sheep   cattle    goats&

                             sheep

1.

Narrappareddi

kunta

Delalpenta

25

100

-

62

-

95

62

2.

Abbarajukunta

 

60

250

-

-

-

85

-

3.

Pangidi

Mokulapalli

25

200

4

136

-

110

136

4.

Rudracude

Lingampalli

50

200

6

38

-

120

38

5.

Pasurutla

Pasurutla

25

100

-

9

-

55

9

6.

Bairluty

Bairluty

380

430

31

129

-

350

139

7.

Siddapuram

Nagaluty

150

200

59

183

-

350

183

8.

Pacheruvu

Pecheruvu

250

250

103

101

-

370

101

9.

Srisailam

Srisailam

250

250

114

154

-

160

154

10.

Indireswaram

Peddagunnutham

105

120

60

254

-

250

120

11.

Kurukonda

Bottulamadugu

50

50

11

-

-

95

Nil

12.

Guvvulakunta

Daralabailu

50

50

23

30

-

100

30

13.

Kothapalli

Parikisela

75

150

3

-

-

75

Nil

14.

Sivapuram

Sivapuram

50

50

-

6

-

75

6

15.

Muruguthi

Velegalakunta

50

50

24

-

-

70

Nil

 

 

Dansala

-

180

-

-

-

Nil

Nil

16.

Abandoned

Honkaram

25

50

-

-

-

Nil

Nil

17.

Gudem

Prema

25

50

-

-

-

-

-

Tota

 for west Kurnool Division

 

1645

2730

438

1112

2375

978

970

 KURNOOL EAST DIVISION 

Sl.

No.

Name of present gudem

Name of the chenchus where from livie in the gudem noted in column

Free grazing allowed at settlement

Now enjoyed

The free grazing now proposed be alloted

 

 

 

cattle   goats    

           or shep

cattle   goats

sheep   cattle    goats&

                             sheep

 

 

 

 

 

 

16.

Peddmantrala

Inkidupalli   

100

162

159

-

221

100

17.

Chilkacherla

Chikacherla  

60

300

29

166

-

160

166

18.

Maddipenta

Gogapadu

-

-

-

16

-

85

Nil

19.

Chinnamantrala

Korrapenta

-

50

24

-

-

160

Nil

20.

Caintalmudipi

-

 

 

4

29

-

125

29

21.

Chintala

Chintala

20

50

46

60

-

130

50

22.

Marripalem

Marripalem

 

50

124

95

-

169

50

23.

Peddachama

Peddachama

 

50

296

180

-

426

50

24.

Tumalabilu

Pecheruvu vidspecheruvu

-

-

133

41

-

133

41

25.

Borabailu

 

 

 

9

39

-

35

39

26.

Nekanti

Alutla

250

250

13

79

4

190

217

27.

Palutla

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28.

Guthalacheruvu

 

150

150

17

218

 

 

 

29.

Pamalabilu

Pamalabilu

 

 

Nil

11

-

98

50

30.

Burigundala

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31.

Yerapenta

Narahudikela

50

50

28

35

1

85

93

32.

Suddakunta

Suddakunta

10

100

8

112

-

70

109

33.

Medam Chelima

Medam Chalima

40

200

7

12

-

55

23

34.

Allipilam

 

 

 

22

11

-

 

 

35.

Duddanala

Dudenala

10

50

11

15

-

45

15

36.

Teluguarayanicheruvu

Telugurayanicheru

50

100

100

22

-

110

22

37.

Girnipenta

Girnipenta

60

100

 

12

-

90

12

38.

Mallapalem

Murukennadegula

10

50

 

15

-

85

15

39.

Chennapalem

 

 

 

53

174

 

202

75

40.

Gurapenta abanddoned

Chinnavaram

50

100

 

 

 

Nil

Nil

 

 

Vjulapava

 

50

 

 

 

--

--

 

 

Gannipalli

 

25

 

 

 

--

--

 

 

Nallaguntla

 

100

 

 

 

--

--

 

 

Pamulamadugu

10

100

 

 

 

--

--

 

 

Akavidu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total for Kurnool

East Division

770

2025

1250

1985

6

2847

120

 KURNOOL SOUTH DIVISION 

Sl.

No.

Name of present gudem

Name of the chenchus where from livie in the gudem noted in column

Free grazing allowed at settlement

Now enjoyed

The free grazing now proposed be alloted

 

 

 

cattle   goats    

           or shep

cattle   goats

sheep   cattle    goats&

                             sheep

 

 

 

 

 

 

41.

Bairani and Basavapuram

Ballainmula

50

150

53

23

-

180

 

42.

Ahobilam   

Ahobilam     

100

250

-

-

120

166

43.

Mahanandi

Gazulapalli

Mahanandi

25

50

 

 

 

40

 

 

 

Grand Total for the three divisions

2590

5205

1743

3120

6

5572

23900

                     

 APPENDIX - IV

STATEMENT OF CHENCHU CULTIVATION 

S.NO

Name of the Forest divn.and Range

Name of gudem

Area of cultivation assigned

Authority for the cultivation

 

Remarks

1.

 

1.Narapparedikunta

5

So No.10of 1923 of Collector, dated:7th July 1923

Cultivation

abendened.

2.

Gandiaorahmesweram range

AbbarazukuntaRangi

10

 

Cultivation abneded 17 acres now under cultivation.

3.

Bairluty Nange

Radracod

pasurutla

3

at settlement

Now all acres and cultivation at kolimicheruvu

4.

 

Bairluty

1.45

at settlement in Gavalakuntalock catsettlement invelgode reserve (disefforested)

9 acres Now under cultivation in the Nandyals Range veand at the site allowed to Guvvalaku block c.

 

 

Nagaluty

7,80

Under the sida puramtank at settlement.

28 acres now under cultivation.

4.

Sivapuram

Indieswaram

6,05

 

About 20 acres no undercultivation

5.

Pecheruvu

Pecheruvu

5

allowed at settlement

abandoned.

 

 

 

3

Atatikeswaram at settlement.

No.cultivation Now.

 

 

 

5.

Atchandipenta at settlement.

-do-

 KURNOOL EAST DIVISION 

S.NO

Name of the Forest divn.and Range

Name of gudem

Area of cultivation assigned

Authority for the cultivation

 

Remarks

1.

Dornal Range

1.Peddachama

114,42

B.P.for Mis.No.18, dated 4th January 1 1923

 

 

 

2.Chinthala

11.55

-do-

No cultivation

 

 

3.Thumalabailu

19.09

-do-

 

 

 

4.Marripalem

2.00

Admitted at settlement

 

 

 

 

66.76

B.P.for mis No.18, Dt.4th January 1913.

 

 

 

5.Peddamantrala

53.65

-do-

 

 

 

6.Chinnatrala

29.82

-do-

No cultivation

2.

Turimella Range

7.Maddipenta

5.05

-do-

 

3.

Markapur

8.Chintalamudipi

10.00

-do-

-do-

4.

Ganjivari

9.Palutla

18.00

B.P.for No.347 Dt.14th August 1918

-do-

 

 

10.Srisailam gudem at Yallgala penta.

5.00

Admitted at settlement

Set-Gudemits abandoned

 

 

11.Srisailam gudem at Marripenta.

5.00

-do-

Abandoned

 

 

12.Srissailam gudem at Yerrabandapenta

2.00

-do-

-do-

 

 

13.Pannalabailu gudem

5.00

-do-

No cultivation now.

 

 

14.Punnalabailu gudem at Bandirayani ogeryvy

5.00

 

 

 

 

15.Narathadikela

0.50

-do-

Garden itself bandoned

 

 

16.Talagrayani Cheruvu

17.04

 

 

5.

Yerragundapalem

17.Police metta the laries at kathamraju.

4.60

Chief conservator Mis No.2 dated, 19th Jan’20

1.12.  Colleced as assement abandanal

 

 

Garapenta

138.80

B.P.F.Mis No.1639 7th Noveber ‘12

Practically whole are Under cultivation 18 all ted asas settlement.

 

 

18.Chennapalem

65.17

B.P.F.is.No.1639 Dt.7th Nov’12

Practically the whole ares is under cultivation cited as assement.

 

 

19.Garnipenta

33.80

-do-

Nocultivation no

 

 

20.Marikimadugula

30.93

Approved by collectos 9th Mar’32

Not regularly cultivation

 APPENDIX.V

STATEMENT OF CHENCHUS DESTS. 

S.No.

Name of the Gudem

AMOUNT NOW DUE

 

capital borrowd   Interest

 

 

Name of villages pro which borrowed

 

1.

Pedda Mantrala

630

450

Cherlopalli

2.

Chilakacherla

154

Not known

-do-

3.

Chinnamantrala

40

-do-

Nallaguntla

4.

Chintla

902

-do-

Cherlopalli, vodavali Timmapuram and Bommalapuram

5.

Narripalem

2190

-do- 

Bommalapuram, Thimmapuram, Yodavalli chenchusof Peddachema.

6.

Peddachama

2534

-do-

Teluguray and cheruvu and Carnpenta, Bommalapuram, Timapuram Ayyanamukkalacherlopa Dornla.

7.

Tummalabailu

890

-do-

Bommalapuram and Ayyanamukkla

8.

Telugurayani Cheruvu

612

-do-

Varipali, flavna baia and veerabtma drapuram.

9.

Nekkanti

10

-do-

Veerabbad

10.

Dorabailu

19

-do-

-do- and Ganjivaripalli

11.

Guttalicheruvu

82

-do-

-do-

12.

Palutla

36

-do-

-do-

13.

Yerapenta

95

-do-

Ganjivaripalli

14.

Burugundala

54

-do-

Vocerabchandrepuram

15.

Gandicheruvu

262

-do-

-do-

16.

Chepalem

255

-do-

Akkapalem and Pullacheruvu.

17.

Garapenta

1167

Not  known

Akkapalem and pullaleruvu

 

Total:

9832

 

 

               

 

S.No.

Number & name of reserve

Name of gudem

Name of dwellingsite.

AREA IN ACRES OR IN SQ.

Dwelling        Culti-         Garden

site                   vation

1.

Nandikotour reserve

1.Marugutti

1.Velagalakunta

1.54

-

-

 

 

2.Sivapuram

2.Yeneddaulapenta

1.08

-

-

 

 

 

3.Pothulapenta

1.54

1.00

 

 

 

 

4.Sudidagendalu

0.51

 

 

 

 

 

5.Devusila

 

1.00

 

 

 

3.Kotapalli

6.Parikesela

0.37

 

 

 

 

 

7.Yeneddula

1.44

0.

 

 

 

4.Guvale

8.Daralabailu

1.44

0.50

 

 

 

5.Kuntaku

9.Pothulama

3.10

0.50

 

 

 

6.Indires

10.Feda Gumetam

3.10

0.50

 

 

 

7.Nagaluty

11.Siddipuram

10.33

3.80

 

 

 

8.Pecheruvula

12.Irpeaia

10.33

2

 

 

 

9.

13.Reddigadda

4.13

1

 

 

 

 

14.Kattakinda

1.03

1

 

 

 

 

15.Yelagalacheruvu

 

1

 

 

 

 

16.Attikeswaram

 

3

 

 

 

 

17.Yelagalaguntapenta

4.13

5

20x5 plantads garden mulamedga

 

 

 

18.Marripenta

4.13

5

-

 

 

 

19.Chundi

1.03

5

100x50 Managa yds garden mitiota

 

 

 

20.Yeerabandapenta

 

2

 

 

 

10.Alutla(Aluttal)

21.Palutla(Alutta)

200x200 Yds(part)

 

 

 

 

11.Raelabailu

22.Bandiravani

 

5

 

 

 

 

23.Guttlapcheruvu

 

5

 

 

 

12.Narathedikalu

24.Narathadikalu

100x50

0.50

 

2.

Velgodereserve

1.Mokula

1.Mokula

1.85

 

 

 

 

2.Paramas

2.Params

5.80

 

 

 

 

 

3.Patta paimash No.74

 

8.47

In favour names Ankdu.

3.

Nandyalreserve

1.Mallalamma(alias Basavepuram)

1.Mallalamma

100x100

 

 

 

 

 

2.Pacherla

2

 

 

 

 

 

3.Bandlamadugu

0.50

 

 

 

 

 

4.Tallugulu

40x40

20

 

 

 

2.Prema

5.Tadikela Mallamma

60x60

 

 

LIST OF GUDEM SITES CULTIVATIONS AND GARDENS ORIGINALLY ALLOWED AT SETTLEMENT BUT NOW COMPLETELY ABANDONED - CONT.

 

4.

Nandyalreserve

3.Monkara

6.Chitimitibollu

50x50

 

 

 

 

4.Balala

7.Bulalapenta

100x100

 

 

 

 

5.Pasurutla

8.Pasurutla

150x150

 

 

 

 

6.Mokulagu

9.Pangidigadda

250x200

 

 

 

 

7.Lingama

10.Rudrada

250x200

 

 

 

 

8.Bairluty

11.Bairluty

200x200

 

This site is occupied by the    but a port in under cultivation.

4.

Gumbumreserv

1.Pullalachruvugudem

1.Palichedu

50x50

 

 

 

 

2.Akvid

2.Mulkalevedu

-

 

 

 

 

 

3.Bijanapallikunta

-

 

 

 

 

 

4.Yenigadmudu

-

 

 

 

 

3.Chilakalacheruvu

5.Nutibbavi

3

 

 

 

 

4.Panukumadugu

6.Tumagudempenta

1

 

 

 

 

 

7.Maddipenta

50x50 Yds

 

 

 

 

5.Pegapadu

 

-

 

 

5.

Markapur

1.Teluguravanicheru

1.TelugurayaniCheruvu

2

 

 

 

 

2.Mademachelins

2.Mallareddigudem

2

 

 

 

 

3.Suddakunta

3.Allipalem

-

 

 

 

 

4.Garnputa

4.Gendicheruvu

-

 

 

 

 

5.Marripalem

5.Garnpat

-

 

 

 

 

6.Chintla

6.Maripale

-

 

 

 

 

7.Chennavaram

7.Chinnavaram

-

 

 

 

 

8.Karikugudem

8.Channavaram

-

 

 

 

 

9.Vastelamayya

9.Markimadugla

-

 

 

 

 

 

10.Vastelayya

-

 

 

               

 

Note:- In 1808 a               Nadikotkur reserve contain in:

            1.Srisailam gudems elling sites at Yealageleruntment and at Marrimenta.

            2.Pecheruvu                             site at nalabailu

            3.Pannalabail gudem            at alutla and Nekkanti

            4.Pannalabailu and welling stie at guttlachenu nadaravani chen.

            5.Marathadikala gudems elling at Marathadikola as and to marks         reserve.

 APPENDIX VII

 STATEMENT OF AREA OF PROCEED WORK

 KURNOOL WEST DIVISION

Sl.

No.

Number and Name of reserve

Name of gudems

 

Remarks

1.

Nandikotkuru Reservoir

1.Bairulity portion

388

 

 

 

2.Siddapuram enclosure

336

for cultivation and gudem sites

 

 

3.Recheruvu enclosure

385

for gudem site

 

 

4.Recheruvu enclosure

328

for gudem site

 

 

5.Rachendi

174

for gudem site

2.

Nandyal reservoir forests

6.Budracode

108

 

 

 

7.Pasurathla enclosure

60

 

 

 

-do-

54

 

3.

Nandyal reservoir forests

1.Narapareddy kunta

184

 

4.

Nandyal extensition forest & velgodu reser.

2.Abburajukonda

184

 

 

 

3.Pangidi

144

 

5.

Kuvvalakunta block-C

1.Bairluty portion

308

 

 

 

2.Siddapuram enclosuresA

284

for cultivation

 

 

3.Indireswaram enclosureA

92

 

 

 

4.              -do-

160

Both for cultivation

 KURNOOL EAST DIVISION 

1.

Markapur reserved forests

1.Thumalabilu

92

 

 

 

2.Nekkanti

52

 

 

 

3.Palutla

316

 

 

 

4.Darabailu

 

2 acres or 100 yards sq.222

 

 

5.Guttalachenu

333

2 acres 100 yards sequare.

 

 

6.Pannelabailu

 

2 acres or 100 yards square.

 

 

7.Yerrpenta

 

-do-

 

 

8.Barugundala

 

8 acres or 100 yards square.

 

 

9.Suddakunta gudem welling a gandicheruvu

2

 

 

 

10.Baddanala

36

 

 

 

11.Talueanicheruvu

230

 

 

 

13.Mallapalem

4

 

 

 

14.Marripalem

152

Cultivation at Murkikilam

 

 

15.Peddachenu

224

 

 

6.Markapur reservoir

forest cont.,

16.Chinthala

250

 

 

 

17.Chennapalem

198

 

 

 

18.Garapenta enclosures A

28

for dwelling sites

 

 

           -do-                           B

526

 

 

 

           -do-       lot No.1

2

 

 

 

           -do-                   2

1

 

 

 

           -do-                   3

5

for cultivation

 

 

           -do-                   4 & 5

8

 

 

 

           -do-                   6

8

 

 

 

           -do-                   7

3

 

 

 

19.Allipalem

2

 

 

7.E.N.Block XIII

           -do- enclosure C

92

 

 

 

           -do- plot No.7

3

 

 

 

1.Maddipenta

36

 

 

 

2.Chinna mantrala

60

 

 

 

3.Peddamantrala

   enclosures                 A

20

 

 

 

    -do-                            B

408

 

 

8.Cumbum reserved forest

 

 

 


 KURNOOL SOUTH DIVISION 

 

9.Nandyal Reserved Forest.

Baireni

19

 

                                                                Total:                                                   6141

Note:-Besides the enclosure newly proposed vide column a)of this at amount the following sites,   

           etc. Allowed at Settlement as under reserve enclosures will be continued as such (Vide               

           paragraph 59 of report.

NOTE: I. Name the number of cattle for which free greaing is now allowed  in excess of the number allowed at the time of reservation. 

Note: II. In the case of gudem number 1 to 0 of Nandikotukur reserve and 1 to 5 of the Nandyala reserve, which lie in the Kurnool West Forest Division, sufficient departmental works are available for the Chenchus, or they find sufficient work under ryots hence they do not refuire a large number of goats 

Note: III The number of cattle now allowed to the different is besed on their repactive population.

 ENDORSEMENT - H.DIS.NO.26/30 DATED 22 ND January 1930

FORWARDS. 

2. This enquiry arse  out of my preducess request that Government would bel plealsed to accept the Chenchus from purdissing pemits for the eocs number of out and coats greaed by the in the reserves over and above the number admitted at the time of the forest settlement.  The chief Conservator folt that the department could not support what was viritually a proposed to allow an unlimited inerease in the number of cattle and goats particularly the latta, kept by the Chenchus but to he was relutast to idulage in nerely destivective criticion and with a view to arrive at some constructive prooposals criticion and with a view to arrive at some constructive proposals place before Government headcuted an extra Assistant Conservator all hold an enquiry.

 3. The first and starting result of the enquiry is to show that taking all the gudems of the three division togather there has been afell the number of cattle and goats as shown below:-

 

 

 

Name of the Division

Number

Cattles

Admitted

at Sheep and goats

Settle-ment

Number at goat

 

Sheep

West Division

  1,645

   2,730

   438

    1,112

-

East  Division

     770

   2,025

1,250

    1,955

        6

South Division

     175

      450

     33

         23

-

Total:

  2,590

   5,205

1,741

    3,120

-

 

 

 

4.Another result of the enquiry is to show that since the census of 1921 the Chenchus have apprently divinished in numbers.  It is truethat Mr.Sundram’s esumention was not simulatenious like and that the census figures included non Chenchus populations in the will village of he Nallamalais ( obviously a small number but the variation between the sensus figures of 1921 (5,275) and the present figure (4,195) indicates a deeline, Nor is a family of 1917 a children relatively to 1,141 adult males and 1,137 adult families likely to lend to an increse in population unless there is a high change is individual health, the Chenchus youth early enough and the woemn appear to be polifie but other factores making for a large population appear to be absent without reliable statistice for some time past it is difficult to forest but unless there is a great advance in he atlmping out of venereal disase and a great improvement in personal hygiene and care of the young he Chenchus is not likely to press on the means of subsistence much more actually than he has done and the cultivation  of a mort.  Practically speaking except in the East Division there is no serious problem but there it sems over a bare sustence for the Chenchus they must take to agriculture of rear cattle and sheep and goats for saloor both.

 5. The enquiry has brought to light a considerable shifting of Chenchus population since the time of the forest settlement.  Temparery shifting is destrictive of forest conservancy but the present proposels will allow a certain amount of shifting within certain limited areas for superstitious other reasons.  The necessiaty for permanent shifting occasionully has, however been recognised in the past, e.g. in 1898 and much of the shifting that has taken if of this character.  The           point dealt with by the special officer in this proposals in the make the areas abandoned  available for forest purposes.  The argument in paragrain 53 and 54 of the report are and cally real difficulties and there appearing to be way of furnishing specific details for framing a notification reforesting abandoned gudem sits, aditing for the sake of argument that the right of the chenchu at any time to dwell there if they wish a right admitted at settlement can now be infinged.

6. At the last monent and indeed after his report had actually been sent to me the special officer revised his proposals inthis report and I presume that the; preem-ption proposals botted in paragraph 55 represent this revision.  There appears to be nothing in the settlement notifications vesting a right of presemption in Government.  Pre-emption but in madrs the law jof pre-aption but in madras the law of pre-emption is true that a claim for premption can be made by jowners jof adjoining immovable property and that the right extends to houses, gardens and small parcels of land (according) to Nulla’s principls of Muhammadan law) and while Government like the English kinga of jold may have some inharent right kof pre-emption I do not see how it can be involved on behalf kof Government where there is no question of purchase since the rights of pre-emption arises only out of a sale.

             I find it difficult to grass the legal concempt of pre-emption of abandoned gudem sites or of rights kof grasing goats when there is no requestionof sale and it fact no every definite idea even of exchange as did proquo.  It is true that in 1898 rules were framed by Government to regular Chenchus (E.P.Forest Non.166 dated 6th May 1898) and that rule 6 of these rules was to a right of pre-emption all minor forest produce collected by the Chenchus.  That is an it eligible (and            non-teachinal) use of the word pre-emption as the forest department merely

 insists, byrule, on the disposed to it of minor forest produce collected for a sale or barter by the Chenchus but it is not the same as giving Government as power pre-emption abanded proposal gudem a sites or admitted rights kto grage certain number                    by the Chenchus.  There seems to be no such right reserved either in the Forest Act or in        notification that the right are subject to resulation by suchrules as may be framed by his excellency the Governor in connection rules as may be       amount to a right of preemption as the       notification appendix to the report seems to pos             .  It would have been                                          

has proposed to give effect to his proposals in the form of a note for criticle examination instead of asking his report to be returned to him for a revision pre-emption appeared to provide a solution.

             The Board pointed out in its Resoulution Forest No.21 dated 19th January 1898 that question whether what was admitted were rights or privileges is immaterial sines the ordersactually passed at settlement area binding and now as them the orders actually passed by settlement as binding and low as then the only point for consideration is what arrangements cannow be made without infinging these orders the soulution was found in certainrules.  The Board in paragraph 5 of the resoulation to which I have referred gave reasons thinking the further rules was required in respect of dwelling and Government did not include any such rule in the set jof rules sued.  It appears to me that a rule right now be framed gaving the Collector power to decleare as abandoned and forfited any gude site she was sastisfied that the Chenchus formerly stabilished the were sow setled also where.  This would solve the difficulty of attampting to     forest pocket hand               areas with boundaries which cannot be clearly fixed or described and would also solve the difficulty of tring of pre-empttionby notification what apprecently is not su               for per-emption.

             8. So far as the gneral legal aspect of the special officer’s proposals for new and enlarged gudem enclosures for welling sites and cultivation are concerned I see to no objection.  Since existing rightrs are taken away and no now rights will be confered other than by annual lease.  I too think, however, that in the case of non abandonel gudems the Chenchus can be forced to leavel its admited it settlement to come into the compact and extensive block now proposed (some of plams cet to indicate this     perhaps the present gudem site really inside the clocks) nor do I think such areas whre they now fall inside the proposed block can leased so far as possible they must be fixed and the lease must leave them alone.  Finally in hree cases the are set said although there are 43 men and 36 women besides children in this gudem.  Adminitting that there is a food supply of forest labour available here it appears to be advisable to increase the provision for cultivation is required.  Again at Naddipenta gudem here is no provision of only actually take to cultivation like others the provision may be increased to 75 acres.  As regards mallpalem the proposed are mis mella inside the 31 acres.  This presumably relates to the areas cultivated at mulikimella inside the reserve as nallapalem where the Chenchus normally reasin for b about six months is a year is outside the reserve.  Hence again the provision seems to be rather inadequate as there are some 15 families.  The extent might be increased to some 60 acres.  It may be noted that there is no sketch of the proposed gudem here and it is not clear where these chenchu wish to settle. 

             9. As regards cattle and goats while I support the special officer proposals there is the same difficulty as regards pre-emption and I seemed no way of gatting over it except by arule giving the collector power inthe interests kof forest consrvancy when he finds that the number of goats in a gudem has fallen below the number admitted at settlement, to fix that as the number now alloweble, compensation being given by increasing the number of cattle correspondingly As regards gudems where goats have increase there is no legal difficulty in reducing the number to the number allowed at settlement but time must be given to produce the excess.  The special Assistent Chenchus officer who has long experience of he cChenchus antipates no.  Trouble such a reduction provided the pace is not dored and he does not atticinated any oposition to hunting goats eleshere  to present numbears.  The rule referred it should also given the collect power to allowe in view of the progress of agriculture and it probable extension, an inarease the number of cattle to be allowed free grading.  Mr.Sundaram’s general principle (paragraph 82) of cow-units perfamily may be maximum but his ignore                and                 .  I doubt, therefore if it is adviable fix a hard and                 .   The great             from 2,590   no                     

Settlement 1,757 cattle 5,120 goats and 6 sheep now is a sufficient indication that there is no great abuse of the free grasing concessions and except in the East Division there can be no fear of any harm to forests and there the forests are, so far as I have seen, so defenerate that I doubt if a policy of restiriction will have any effect, I agree , however, that till cultivation gets much more general there should no jumping to the maximum.  Inded apart from replacing goats I would not favour any increase in cattle except for plough cattle and natural increase, Tigers will see to the cattle keeping

             He entered upon his duties on 17th May 1979, and on 15 th September 1929.  He submitted to this office, through the collector, for critism a prelimanary report in respect of the chenchous gudems in kurnool  west so that he could carry on the work in the remainng division in the light of the orders they might be passed on the question discussed by him in that report.  This report which a was received in this office on 28th September 1929 with the Collector’s endorsements Forwarded weas ined in detail and instructions were issued to the special officer though the collector on 1st October, 1929.  As to who the questions raised in that report might be dealth with and how on certain technical matters the opinion of the collector would be most valuable in doing so, itwas emphsised that the final report, whichmust deal with each class of rights seprately, should be accompanied ling or modifying old ones, or for grating new concession arsing out of the already admitted rights having cutgrown their original limits.

             4.When I was camping at Kurnool on 17th December 1929 the Special officer showed me a  copy of his final report submitted by him through the collector whichhad not reached me at the time and on going through it I found that, in addition to the proposals in certain cases not having been definite nor in according with the specific insctions contained in may order of 15th October 1929 he had dealt with certain matters in that report which were quite outside the scope of the enquiry.  It was not also a report to the chief conservator of Forests but only to this officer.  It was therefore pointed out to him that his report should be confined to the points at issue and it should be capable of being acted upon without further reference in the event of the proposals being finally accepted.  Infact in paragraph 61 of the first report of the specialofficer referred to by the collector, proposal were made by that officer for aforesting what are rightly.  Term pocket hand kerchief by the collector, without even so much as a plan localising these pollts or even a boundary description therefore.  It was only when I pointed put to him the practically difficulties arising out of such proposals which are now detailed by himin paragraph 52 to 54 of the report under reference, that he realised the decesity for revising his first report in fact in passing orders on 14 th October 1929 as to to the abandoned gudem sites and cultivations should be dealt with I wrote to the Special Officer, through the Collector as below:-  

I.          In this cas it should be made clear whether the rights granted for three abandned                                                 Voluntary intemission for at least two years next before out taking, steps for resuing is a matter on which the collector opision is of the gratest importance. 

            On 17th December 1929 when the special officer discussed his final proposals with no it was made clear to him that the only perhaps be to got a notification sanctioned by proper authority declaring that the rights orginally admitted therefore are extinguished eigher because they had been voluntarily given up without objection from the servient estate, or because they have been lost by prescription, as the had cesed to exist for the last twenty years.  In this connection it must be remember that the rights orginally admitted are not transferable nor exclusive now monopoly rights.  The importing of the term pre-emption the special officer present report has flus no significances part from the fact that the pre-emption proposals are, and pointed out by the collector, not applicable to these cases.  With these preliminary remarks, I shall deal with the points dealt with in he report.

             5. The departures from the admitted rights dealt with inthe report relate to Chenchus.

 Cattle keeping this multiplying within limits.

                       It may be said that these rules which I proposes are merely pre-emption another form.  To some exten that is true but by making rules Government adhere to the powers they reserved to themselves by provisant the settlement.  The only question is whether such rules are in      vires of the Government, the rle suggested for dwelling sites appars to be unobjectionable as other dwelling sites are given in exchange the rule regarding grasing rights in some more doubtful and if legal popiniou  doubts the validity of such a rule I can only suggest attempting to seem the same results by excecutive pesuasion and preseure.

             Paragraph 48 the report I am distintly opposed to the idea of paragraph making a sort of criminal settlement in order to colose iskagundam and gudlebrheswaren.  The result of that would be nerely to drive and the Chenchus out of view in order to avoid trouble some over small instructions and past experience has what in amount of trouble even a  mallgang of out of view Chenchus can cause.  I have reffered to the over on of colonsing these gudems in another report to the chief conservator as on the question of conditions on which I conside such colomparagraph 34 of the report the question of  Chenchus education have been refered turn the report obviously me soncesis cannot absorb as teachers all the Chenchus boys who group to atmakur or Nankapur for higher education bulit sems possible that more openings might be providing the Forest Department.

             12. Nr.Sundram has written an interesting report and taken considerable trouble in his enquiry.  The concret part of his proposals as regards gudem enclosures was generally incorporated in his weekly of which I had personal knowledge I was able to endorse his proposals and his enquiry wention.  As rgards the gudems I dont know I have taken the opportunity of asking the Assistant Chenchus report and apart from the gudems mentioned in paragraph 8 above find he has no criticims.  My intention was that the report should be forwarded in guadruplicats so that I might retain a copy for reference while the conservator and chief conservator might do the same.  As this has not been donot suggest that the papers may be printed in due course. 

                                                                                    W.SOOTTEROWN

                                                                        COLLECTOR OF KURNOOL 


ENDORSEMENT NO.760/29 N 2DATED 16 TH fEBRUARY 1930:

FORWARDED. 

            2. Mr.A.V.Sundaram’s report is inpursance of the enquiry sutlined in paragraph of the chief conservator’s letter No.7611-0-2/28-5  dated 6th April, 1929 to the collector of Kurnool.  Total instructions as to the lines on which investigation should proced and the results thereof record were issued in this office 760/29-N2 dated 17th April 1929 copy of which ws duly submitted to the chief conservtor of Forests.  The special duty involved investigation in all the three forest divitions of Kurnool but the bulk of it was in the Kurnool West and Was Division.

 A) Dwelling sites, cultivations and gardens (paragraph 51 to 59) and b)Grasing (paragraph 75 to 85)

             6.         Dwelling sites and cultivations I) The total number of dwelling sites, cultivations and gardens admitted, free from reservation, in favour of the Chenchus in the three divisions of Kurnool was 101 agregating 378 acres of which 65 are dwelling sits (gudem) of 248 acres which 47 are dwelling sites of 106 acres.  The balance covered by existing sanctions consists therefore of 31 dwelling sition (gudem) cultivations and gardens of an aggregate are of 195 acres of which gudem dwelling site) alone are 18. The number of new Chenchus gudems for which not statement has been furnished by the special officer, but which is gathered from the new gudems submitted with the report is 24 for which both for dwelling sites and for present and future expansion of cultivation an area of 3,409 acres additionally provided i.e. in addition to the 112 acres along originally submitted with the report for cultivation and dwelling sits for II out of the 18 old gudems, the not result is that the proposals an agregate ares of 6,141 acres for cultivations and gudem sites against 378 acres orginally admitted at settlement.

 ii) The points for decision are:-

 a) Now the abandone dwelling sites (47) measuring 106 acres, and cultivations including gardens (23) measuring 77 acres (Appendix VI) should be dealt with and.

 b) Under what conditions the new Chenchus gudems and fresh cultivations should be permitted if all these additional areas proposed are really necessary.

 iii) As regards (a) to it seems to my mind that these rights which conferred no right of absolute ownership to the property concarned.  And which are reported to have been defintely abandoned and to be no longer  required, we should be treated as ostingushed and therefore lost either under section 43 or 47 of the Indian Easement Act V of 1882 or under the Indian limintion Act.  In these cases as the rights were granted orginally by Government.  It is considered that Government along is competent to declare them now extinguished to  Government aloe is competent to declare them now extinguished to so as the present possible later posession and enjoyments of them by the original grantees.  If this is consded, it is suggested that the draft notification (Schedule I) referred to in paragraph 56 of the recommended to be published under the authority of Government.  It may be that the legal phraselogy adopted in it has to be altered and it may be done if nnecessary under legal adivice.

             In this connection it is to be noted that gudem No.8 dwelling site No.11 referred to under Nandyal reserve, and gudem No.2 and dwelling site No.3 refered to under Markapur reserve both in schedule and Appendix VI, should be eliminated as the former is an admitted right for shrine which cannot be extingished, and the latter is an admitted right the bullk of which in the same locality, continuing to be in possession and enjoyment, a fact which is referred to in paragraph 58 of the report and also inAppendix VIII against the entry palutla

 iv)       As the individual area in all the cases referred to in Appendix VI are very small they are difficult to be localised and surveyed they need not, I think be formely aforested.  It would be enough for all protical forest purposes, if the rights first granted are now declared to have been exitinguished, whether the foreiture is ordered by the collector or by Government, the fact will still remain that the localities concemed will continus to be unreserved lands unlelss they are forestated.  But formal reservation sems hardly necessary in view of the proetical difficulties involved which are referred to in paragraphs 52 of there report.

 V) As regards (b) the posession and enjoyment of the new concessions should be in my view.  On an annual renewatel lease under the consisions detailed in paragraph 67 to 73 of the report.

             This form of lease will apply not only to the new gudems(2) which have come into existence after the forest settlement, but also to 11 cut of the 18 old ones which continue to exist, becaue these II gudems with their original dwelling sits and cultivations are II old gudem which are proposed to be given additional lands, inside the reserved forest are detailed in Appendix VIII and are referred are reforred to under the heading remarks in Appendix VII for which lease in necessary.  A consolidated list of all new and old gudems to which the annual lease will apply is given in Appendix VII to which should be added the new Chenchus gudem at allipalem (2 acres of dwelling site alone) established now at a place different from the locality where the right to the dwelling site was originally granted at settlement the especial officer has referred to the abandomant of the site first granted to the allipalem Chenchus, in his Appendix VI, and schedule 1 of the draft notification but, in proposing a different site in the reserved forest to be loased to them as indicated in the plan submitted by hi;m, he has omitted by mistake its inclussion in appendix VII. 

VI.       The total number of annual reasonable                  leases to be excented if the proposed are accepted, is 30  including                 for an aggregate place area of 6,141 acres, of which 112 acres are all ready admitted at settlement but which, for purposes of convience of boundary, are included in the larger enclosur in each case.  I think there can be gudems in the annual lease, provided the locality and are originally the total are of the enclosure.  In this way the objection raised.  This , howeever, seems to be a matter of detail. 

Viii) Plans, in repect of 35 out of the proposed 36 lelases (one not submitted by the special office for nallapalem gudem and it has been called for) referred to in Appendix VII are submitted here with for perusal and returns. 

VIII.    There is no objection, from aforest point of view to a larger areas being set apart for campansion of cultivation for the Chenchus of Birai, Maddipenta land Nallapalem proposed by the collector in paragraph 8  of his endorsement, long as the condition land down in paragraph 71 therefore in satisfied. 

IX.       Orders of the chief conservator seem sufficient to deal with the II old and the 24 new gudems, under a system of annual lease, after orders passed it will be for the District Forest Officers concerned to lay out and demarcate the new enclosures in accordance with the plans there of now submitted.  The expenditure connected with this demarcationwill prsumbly be debited to the Chenchus budget abort which chief Conservator’s orders are solicited. 

X.        As the dwelling sites and cultivations referred to in the foot note to Appendix VII had not been accuratly defined and mapped at the original settlement and as it is necessary that these rights should be strictly confined to the existing localities which have been indicated in the plas submitted by the special only apporximatly maintained by the District Forest Officers, concerned.

             7).Grazing rights:- 1. Free grazing was permitted at the time of forest settlement for 2,590 heads of cattle and 5,205 and goats in favour of 42 Chenchus gudems which had beendefinately named.  These rights were therefore not personal and were attached ony to the Chenchus as a whole living in a specified locality.  If these Chenchus were to go away altogether from that locality, to reside permanently some where else, they would, technically, inmy vie lose the right.  Judged on this bases a persual of Appendix III will show that out of 42 Chenchus gudems, as many as 15 had been definately abandoned the inhabitants there of now living in a different locality altogether.  The number involved in these cases consists of 950 cattle and 1,820 goats.  If it is conceded that the free grazing rights in respect of them case to exist, the aggregate number for which free grazing must be continued will be 1,640 cattle and 3,385 goats against 5,579 and, 2,390 respectively (maximum) now recommended by the Social Welfare Officer, though on the presen date the Chenchus, in all the old and new gudems put together , own only 1,741 cattle, 3,120 goats and 4 sheep. 

II.         Having regard to the necessity of congining the chenchus of to their present gudems by training them gradually to take to agricultural our suits in the areas to be leased to them, it is not fair to any of them the free grazing rights orginally granted to them, though in som case they might be considered to have been lost owing to the disappearance of the orginal gudems on behalf of them inhabitants of which the rightrs wer orginally ranted.  Both on this ground and also for the reasons that further free grazing facilities should be provide, in the not unlikely event of agriculture agreading among the chenchus, the special officer has provided for maximum of 5,572 cattle and 2,390 goats onthe basis of five cow units perfamily.  I think that this is the maximum it to which we need go at present and any further increase should be on specific sanction of Government. 

III.       As the present a proposals are, however, at variance with the rights granted at settlement, the special officer has submitted draft notification for regulaizing the departue.  The point for decesion is, whether the rights orginally granted at the time of settlement can now be modified, if it should affectthe chenchus of the gudems concerned adversely, though the modification is baged on the actual requirements of each gudem with special regard to forest conservancy.  As already remarksed no right free grazing can be claimed, in law, in respect of the 15 gudems whichhave cased to exist as such in their original localities.  Out of the 27 rmaining gudems, 5 get more free grazing than that admitted at settlement and there can therefore be no legl difficulty about them.  As regard the remaining 22 gudems (vide Appendix III) of legal opinion shows that the orginal rights canot be alternated, the ony course open is as the collector points out to attempt to secure the same results by exceultive per suasion and presure.  But personally, I think that Government can always restrict, without compensation, the right to what the forest will bear without being injured.  It is obvious that there would be no need to go back management it is obvious that there would be no need to go back on the rights orginally admitted.  In respect goat browsing.  Until so long as goats are kept as stock for trade and not for ploughing or household wants, the continnuance of this right would offend against the principle that personal and individual wants are the measure of a right of user.  We are faced with the forgive public duty of improving the foests in the neighourhood of the gudems, which had been running by fires and the chenchus knife, for which a working plan is now being prepared goats and forest cannot co-exist and no right can exist which would involve the gradual disappearence of the servient estate.  The proposed modification of the rights admitted at settlement goes to the extent only of imposing a restraint on goats with compensation for increase of other cattle.  For these reasons I think that the orginal free grazing may be modification under orders of Government.  In that case, the draft notificatin, referring to a schedule II, submitted by the special officer may be recommended to be published. 

            8. Other rights allowed to the chenchus at settlement the special officer’s remarks in paragraph 87 are endorsed.

             9.Non-chenchus dwelling sites and cultivations in the Mallamala is para graph 88 the report (I) in view of the abandoned enclosures one at Murukimadugulu (3 acres)the other at Thokkapenta (6 acres and) a third at Pecheruvu (1 acre) being very small, the question of afforesting them raised in paragraphs 88 and 90 of the report may be dropped for the reasons explaned in paragraph 6(iv) of this endorsement.  The plan in tracing cloth for the proposed small enclosure inside the reserve, for the kappalakunta sugalis, a said to heave been submitted by the special officer has not been recuived it has been called for.

 Ii) The existing system of lease in respect of the sugalis at Kappallakunta Palutal and Guttalachenu, referroed to in paragraph 88 and 89 continue as regards the areas now under their respective occupation.

             10. I enclosure herewith a memorandum of corrections found necessary in the enclosures accompanying the special officer’s report.

 11.       It is a great pity that the special officer has not man of olded copies either of his report of its enclosures.  The copy received in this office is now submitted and I support and the  collector’s proposal for printing the report and its enclosures.

 12.       I endores what the collector says in paragraph 12 of his endorsement onMr.A.V.Sundaram’s work.

 

                                                                        K.R.VENKATARAMANA AYYAR

                                              ACTING CONSERVATOR OF fORESTS, SECOND CIRCLE


 

 LETTER FROM A.VIMEUSH, Esq.I.F.S., ACTING CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FOREST TO THE COLLECTOR OF KURNOOL, DATED: MADRAS THE * 16TH JUNE 1931, No.REF.7611/29.

 (Chenchus               - Mr.A.,V.Sundaram’s report - refarence - Endorsement of the Collector of Kurnool, N.Dis.No.26 of 1930 dated: 22nd January 1930 on Mr.A.V.Sundaram’s report on chenchus rights).

             In 1987 the collector of Kurnool Mr.P.Ramalingam, in his lettler Rc.No.B-1-2537 dated: 28th August 1928. Addressed chenchus free grazing to the extent of their requirements, in excese of the limit fixed curing forest settlement.  As a result of this Mr.A.V.Sundaram was posted on special duty inApril 1929 to inquire into and report on the chenchus lights in resepect of both grasin and lands.  Mr.Sundaram submitted his report through the collector and consarvator of in December 1929.  The report was received in this office February, 1930.

 2.         The report is a very useful one and has been read with much interest.  The endorsements of the collector and conservator a have also been carefully examined.

             In 1987 the Collector of Kurnool Mr.P.Ramalingam, I his letter Rc.No.B-1-2537 dated 28th August 1928 addressed Government through this office, requesting them to allow the chenchus free grazing to the extent of their requirements, in excese of th limit during forest settlement.  As a result of this Mr.A.V.Sundaram was posted on special duty in April 1929 to in quire into and report on the chenchus rights in respect of both grazings and lands.  Mr.Sundaram submitted his report through the collector and conservator of in December 1929.  The report was received in this office February 1930.

             2.The report is a very useful one and has been read with much interest.  The endorsements of the collector and conservator have also been carefully examined.

 3.         The report has gone far beyond the scope of the collector’s letter dated 26 th August 1928 which has contined only to grazing rights.  But it throuws same side light on the chenchus situation in general.  Its             interest lies in showing that the chanchas problems of naither so number of nor so abs                  as might have been expected.

 4.         Generally spealling the report shows that the attempts and in the past to civilize the chenchus have made firly good progress.  It is setisfactory to note that spread of education.  The practice of agriculture, the provisions of regular for st     

work (to keep them from crim) have all increase to a greater or less extent in recent years.

 5.         The report shows that on the the whole the chenchus are not keeping more cattle and goats than were provide for at forest settlement cattle that the number of gudems have decreased rather then increased.  And in the absence of the recent census figures there is no reason to suppose that the population of the chenchus, for hose welfare the forest Department is annually spending large sume kof money has increassed apporcisnly.

 6)         In view kof the above facts it seems doubtful wether a general re-allotment of the grassing rights admitted at settlement and ageneral realloment re-allocation  for gudem sites is at all necessary.  An alternative, which right probaly be prepoerably, would be to deal individually with each of the small numbers of gudems, the position and amenrties kof which are not now inaccordance with the original forest settlement.

 8.         The above suggestions made a        careful consideration are specially calculated to provide for the present and furture requirements of the chenchus on the right line and at the same time to insure the protection on forests.  If it is decided to tackle the problem on the lines indicated above it could seem to be necessary to forward Mr.P.Ramalingam’s letter of 25th August, 1928 to Government.  There present Collector is reuested to be so good as to state whether he agrees to the suggestions outlined above.

 COPY TO THE CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS SECOND CIRCLE.


 

             LETTER FROM M.GAWNE, I.C.S. Collector of Kurnool to the chief conservator of Forests, dated the 5th September 1931 PC No.2533/31. 

***

(CHENCHUS - Chenchus rights - Mr.Sundaram’s report - your Ref No.7611/28 dated 16th June 1931). 

            In my forwarding endorsement N.Dis.No.26-30 dated 21 st January 1930 I asked that Mr.Sundaram’s full report be printed and supplied to me for reference please let me know if this is not going to be done I have not a complete coy any where at Kurnool and I am therefore handicapped in offering my remarks.

 A)        I agree that ther is no object in trying to afforest abandones gudems such areas mustfull outside working plan areas.  It they revert to jungle and technically

           and later chenchus return and clear places and settlement there for some reason it is difficult to see what objection there would be to their resettling. 

B)        NOW GUDEMS I see no objection to the leases.  Care will, however, have to be takento see that the chenchus understand what are the conditions of the lease not jonly that the conditions may be enforce but that he understand that he is being given faourable treatment for cultivation also as well as in forest matters.  As the leases are free he will not mind.  I may in this connection point out that by rights the forest department is bound to pay it is levided by the district Board) on land given to chenchus free or rent for cultivation. 

C)        No actionis necessary inthe case of gudems containing less cattle and goats.

 D)        Goats in excess agree that there is no reason why some firmnse shoud not be show in reducing the goats to settlement fiures especilly as wear are dealing not with an increase population but with a decrease population.  There is therefore need to all more goats per family.  Merely because more happen to be pred.  They can keep sheep if they like, but they don’t like.  This will be attended to by the new assistant chenchus officer.  After all it, as Mr.Sundaram Says, goats are like 5 rupees note easily passing fgrom hand (unlikecattel no great hardship is involvedin telling chenchus of perticular gudems that they cannot have more then a certain number of goats. 

             In effecting this reduction in the number of goats there is in opinion no particular need to be affaid of a chenchus put break.  There is no appreciable chenchus crime at present.  The chenchus are ellin hand.  I do not say that this means that we may relex all precautionss put it does show that there is no eason to be terrified about ordering something that may be unpleasant to oneor two gudesm.  Infact it is my opinion that the chenchu has or good idea now a days on which side his bread is buttered. 

XIII 

LETTER FROM J.H.LONGRIGG, Esq., I.F.S., acting conservator of Forests second circle to the chief conservator of Forests, dated (camp) horselykonda 5th April, 1932 No.M - 21052/31.

             COPY OF YOUR ENDORSEMENT, dated 22nd March 1932 , on your Ref No.7611/c-1-28 dated 22nd March, 1932 and resead to the collector of Kurnool Mr.Sundaram’s report on chenchus).

 Our endorsement was addressed in error or to conservater, first circle, chosen it to me and it was received in this office on 22nd April, 1932.

             It is curious that the collector of Kurnool’s letter No.2533-32 dated 5th September 1931 did not reach you.  It did notno pass through he but I supposed that the collector would send your replay and on 23rd December 1931. I asked him to send me  a copy of his reply which he did.  When I received it on 8th January 1932. I was glad to see that the collector’s views reed with my own and filed it, after sending a copy to Mr.Sundaram and three District  Forest officers presumply the Collector will send you a copy of his letter now that he knows it the original miscarriedor by some mistake did not issue, but any how submit a cop of it here with. 

PROCEEDINGS - NO.321, PRESS, DATED 15TH JULY 1932 

At the time of forest settlement of the Nallamala is, certain rights in respect of occupancy and the number of cattle that might be grazed without payment were admitted in favour of the chenchus.  In 1928, it was brought to notice that the number of cattle and goats actually was in excess of that admitted at settlement and the collector suggested that the excess be condoned.  Incidentally, it is to beremembered that the officials of the forest Department had gravely neglected their duty by failling to bring the increase to notice.

             In was decided to dispute a gazetted Officer to enquire into all the circumstances and Mr.A.V.Sundaram, Extra Assistant conservator of Forest, was duly deputed with the following instruction.

 I. That a survey be made of all the existing chenchus gudems within the reserved for     , in the three Kurnool Forest Division, and that plans be prepared showing the locality and extent of each case as submitted at the time of forest settlement.

 Ii.         That an accurate census be taken of cattle (buffaloes, cows, goats and shep belived to be along to the chenchus in             gudem and com area with number of each kind comitted at settlement.

 Iii. That proposals based on accurate an quiry be submitted for reqularzing such  from the records of rights admitted at settlement as may be found to exist with regard to the ascertained actual requirements of chenchu gudem in the matter or house sites for cultivation live stock, etc.  and

iv. That a consus of the chenchus end of the houses in each gudem be taken and recorded.

 2.         M.Sunderam report with endorsement of the collector and conservator was received in February, 1930 further discussion have taken place and the following orders are issued with the agreement or the collector.

             Abandoned due chenchus gudems legally the abandoned gudems cannot reserved and the chenchus or at any rate some of them, could return to the at any time within the statutory limitation period of the entry years them it is difficult to state when that period commoence in any particular case.  It should be clearly kept in mind that the abandoned gudems should not be registered has unreserves in the revenue registeres, as this could ential be then risk of the being some time, assinged to people other than chenchus.  It must realised thir these are as were excluded from reservation at the time of settlement exclusively for the benifit of the chenchus and that there should therefore be no risk of their ever being as signed to other people.  Such gudems should be registered  their in the prohibitory register maintained by the revenueDepartment as not available for assignement.

 Ii. New gudems the occupation of the unadmitted settlement should be rgular issued by the grant of annual levies any ceased for cultivation and huse sites, on these line.

             The lease shall be annual and shall be rent free.  In case however, the District Board levies any ceases on lands leased for cultivation, they will be aid by the forest department the leases shall be tenats at will of the forest department and shall be allowed to occupy house sites and cultivation lands on excuting simple agreements, which shall be renewed every year to present the concession from developing into prescriptive rights.  No new gudesm shall be allowed except under duly excuted annualleases.

             In the case of expension of cultivation around an existing gudem the occupation of such area in excess of that admitted at settlement may be regularised by the grant of an annual rent - free lease.

             The terms of the leases must be carefully explained and emphasis must be a laid down the fact that the chenchus are receiving very favoured treatment in all matters.

 Iii. Decrease of cattle:-In cases in which the number of cattle owned is lelss than that

                                       admitted at settlement no action is necessary.

 Iv. Increase of cattle:- As the increase in cattle is in the interest of the expansion of

                                        the expansion of cultivation, it need not be discouraged fresh                                   area are granted on annual lease, one of the conditions should

                                      specify the nimber, if any, of additional cattle which the chenchus of the gudem are allowed to keep.  This instsuctions is not to be interpreted to mean that annual limited or unlimited number of cattle is to be allowed.

 V. Increase of goats:- It is necessary to instist on the reduction of the number of goats to the number of prescribed at settlement within a specified time.  This may be fixed at three years.  Section in respect of this institution must be progressive nothing will be achieved by deferring a may action until the ghree years has expired.  It may be doubted whether the chenchus will beinany any grateful for the considerable consideration know their in those orders, but it should be pointed out to them that they are being given a great deal and that they have for a long time possed a larger number of goats then they had any rights to di.

                                                                             R.D.RICHAMOND

                                                            CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS. 

                                                                        V.S.DARRINGTION,

                                                                     PERSONAL ASSISTANT

   

 

W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.

 

The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502

 

Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.

 

"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."

 

 

A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 

        

INDIRA SAGAR (POLAVARAM) CENTRAL EMPOWERED COMMITTEE ORDER

if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;

FORESTS ARE RESERVOIRS OF WATER AND LUNGS OF OUR ENVIRONMENTS.

SAVE THEM FROM MINING AND DESTRUCTION.

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